NS 1410 Midterm: exam 4 review

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Nutritional Sciences
NS 1410
Kembra Albracht- Schulte

Chapter Thirteen: Achieving and Maintaining a Healthy Body Weight ❖ Body Mass Index (BMI) Interpretation o Underweight: <18.5 kg/m (increased risk of health problems) o Normal Weight: 18.5 – 24.9 kg/m o Over Weight: 25.0 – 29.9 kg/m o Obesity: >30 kg/m (significantly increased risk of health problems) o Morbid Obesity: >40 kg/m (body weight exceeding 100% of normal) ❖ Limitations of BMI o It may overestimate body fat in athletes o It may underestimate body fat in older persons ❖ Evaluating Body Weight – Body Composition o Densitometry: underwater weighing – Gold Standard (MOST accurate, but typically only used to research purposes – expensive, not practical) o Anthropometry – least accurate measurement available o Conductivity: Bioelectric Impedance o Dual – Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) – very accurate assessment of body composition o Bod Pod* - air displacement ❖ Evaluating Body Weight o Fat distribution Pattern ▪ Measured by wait-to-hip ration and waist circumference ▪ Apple shaped fat patterning – upper body ▪ Pear shaped fat patterning – lower body ❖ Waist – to – hip Ration o Risk associated with WHR: >.80 women & >.90 men o Abdominal fat increases risk for chronic disease ❖ Waist Circumference o Risk of death/chronic diseases from all causes appears to be highest for individuals with central obesity o >40” males >35” females ❖ Weight Loss Equation: eat fewer calories +increase activity = weight loss ❖ Energy Intake o Calculating the energy that is in a particular food ▪ Carbohydrate is 4 kcal/g ▪ Protein is 4 kcal/g ▪ Fat is 9 kcal/g ▪ Alcohol is 7 kcal/g ❖ Energy Expenditure o Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) – energy expended to maintain basal (resting) functions of the body o BMR increases with more lean body mass, during stress and periods of growth (childhood / pregnancy) o BMR decreases with age and during energy restriction (fasting or starvation) ❖ Healthful Weight Change Involves moderation & Consistency o Healthful weight change requires: ▪ Gradual changes in energy intake (500-1000 kcal/day deficit) ▪ Regular and appropriate physical activity (30 min/day, 5day/wk) ▪ Behavior modification techniques o For safe and effective weight loss ▪ Follow recommended serving sizes ▪ Reduce high-fat, high-energy food intake ▪ Regular physical exercise: increase energy expenditure and BMR o Safe and effective weight loss is about 1-2 pounds/week ❖ Fad diets – Fads that do not result in long-term, healthful weight changes o Their rise in popularity is rapid (so, typically, is their decline) o They have a special appeal or prestige o They are or at least sound easy o They relieve the dieter of all responsibilities and decisions o They distort, ignore, basic nutrition principles o They seldom include a full variety of foods o IF IT SOUNDS TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE IT PROBALBY IS!! ❖ Weight loss diets o Gradual weight loss (1-2 pounds per week) o Quality research finds these diets to: ▪ Effective in weight loss ▪ Lower LDL cholesterol ▪ Lower TG ▪ Lower blood pressure o Professional analysis of this diet: nutritionally adequate if follow general guidelines from My Plate, otherwise a vitamin/mineral supplement may be recommended o Dr. Atkin’s Diet Revolution, Sugar Busters ▪ Often nutritionally inadequate, may require supplements o Regular physical activity is a key component o Effective at weight loss but difficult to maintain over time because they are TOO restrictive ❖ Sound Weight Loss Plan – any successful weight lost program must include all 3 of these o Dietary recommendation, physical activity recommendation, behavior modification recommendations ❖ Weight Loss Drugs o Xenical (orlistat) – inhibits pancreatic lipase and decrease fat absorption o Alli: over-the-counter orlistat ▪ The downside of Alli is the fat it locks can come out of your body in embarrassing ways. The Glaxo Web site myalli.com, warns the drug can cause gas with oily discharge as well as frequent or loose stools. The site suggests it’s probably a “smart idea” to wear dark pants and bring a change of clothes to work if you use Alli ❖ Bariatric Surgery o Surgical procedure that restricts stomach size and/or leads to decreased absorption of nutrients o Benefits: improvement in type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea o Risk: several, including death o Only for morbid obesity (BMI 40+) o Serious surgery with varied outcomes and possible complications o Often very successful o Historical this was a last resort o New research suggest that this surgery should no longer be a last resort, but rather be done BEFORE diabetes, CVD, etc. are severe Chapter Thirteen. Five – Disordered Eating ❖ Family Influences o Families with anorexic members seem to have a more rigid family structure o Families in which a member has bulimia show a less stable family organization ❖ Personality Traits o Anorexia nervosa ▪ OCD ▪ Perfectionism ▪ Social inhibition ▪ Compliance ▪ Emotion restraint o Bulimia Nervosa ▪ Impulsiveness ▪ Low self-esteem ▪ Extroversion ▪ Erratic personality style that seeks attention and admiration ❖ Genetic and Biological Factors o The probability of having an eating disorder is several times higher if a biological relative also has an eating disorder ❖ Anorexia Nervosa o Health risks: ▪ Electrolyte imbalance • Irregular heartbeat • Heart failure • Death ▪ Cardiovascular problems • Rapid heart rate • Low blood pressure • Dizziness • Fainting due to starvation • Low body temperature ▪ Gastrointestinal problems • Weak and loses ability to function
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