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PSYC 101 Exam 2 review Ch. 4,5,9.pdf

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

Development- how and why people change across the human life span▯ 3 Main processes: ▯ • Physical- biological changes ▯ • Cognitive- thought, intelligence, languages ▯ • Socioemotional - relationships, emotions▯ Later experience vs Early experience - your childhood affects your future in one way or another▯ Early experience (fixed)▯ Later experience (adaptable)▯ Nature vs Nurture▯ Nature- biological ▯ Nurture- environmental ▯ Prenatal Development▯ Conception- marks the beginning of the germinal stage▯ ▯ Stages: ▯ Germinal (1-2 weeks) = Zygote▯ Embryonic (3-8 weeks) = Embryo,▯ Fetal (2-9 months) = Fetus▯ Jean Piaget- Theory of Cognitive Development: children actively construct their cognitive world.▯ Sequence of development▯ *Sensorimotor (birth - 2 yrs) Object permanence ▯ *Preoperational (2-7yrs) Egocentrism▯ *Concret operational (7-11) Conservation▯ *Formal operational (11-15) Abstract and idealistic thought▯ Adolescent egocentrism ▯ Early adulthood▯ Middle adulthood▯ Late adulthood▯ Accommodation = Restructuring▯ ▯ ex. Red means stop & green means go▯ Assimilation = Incorporating ▯ ▯ ex. Red santa, now red doesn't just mean stop▯ Erikson- Psychosocial Development- 8 turning points with 2 outcomes, positive or negative▯ 1. Trust vs Mistrust (infancy) ▯ Are you getting fed on time? you trust your parents to be there▯ 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood) ▯ Autonomy = Proud they can do it by themselves. ▯ Shame and Doubt= feel like they let you down. ▯ Hard time making commitment later in life no sense of security.▯ ex. toilet training▯ 3. Initiative vs Guilt (Early childhood) (Preschool)▯ Taking initiative, doing something and feeling proud. need to develop more purposeful behavior ▯ 4. Industry vs Inferiority (middle and late childhood) (6-11) ▯ Being held back. learning social/ academic demands. Mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Danger is they can feel incompetent or unproductive ▯ 5. Identity vs Role confusion▯ 6. Intimacy vs Isolation▯ 7. Generativity vs Stagnation ▯ 8. Integrity vs Despair▯ Parenting styles▯ Authoritarian- very strict▯ Authoritative- firm but open, allows child to be part of making some rules, Not overbearing, most ideal▯ Neglectful- Very disengaged▯ Indulgent- too permissive, let them do what they want whenever▯ Kohlberg- Moral Development▯ Pre-conventional- pleasure seeking and avoiding punishment ▯ Conventional- law & order thinking, very concrete, everything is black and white no grey▯ Post-Conventional- what is right might not be the best idea▯ Temperamen:thow a child responds ▯ Attention▯ Divided- multi-tasking▯ Selective- focusing on one things while ignoring others▯ Sight/Eye ▯ Iris- colored parts of they eye. a muscle t
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