[CH 105] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (20 pages long!)

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CH 105
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chapter 11: Intro To Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds
Contain carbon and hydrogen atoms
Can have other atoms, too (mostly N, O, S, P, and Halogens)
The number of bonds relies on valence electrons
Halogens (F, Br, Cl, I) 1 bond
Oxygen 2 bonds
Nitrogen 3 bonds
Carbon 4 bonds
Atomic Shapes
VESPR Rules
4 groups of electrons (bonds and lone pairs) = tetrahedral
4 bonds = tetrahedron = 109.5
3 bonds + 1 lone pair = trigonal pyramidal
2 bonds + 2 lone pairs = bent
3 groups of electrons = trigonal planar = 120
2 groups of electrons = linear = 180
Types of bonds:
Single Bonds
Double Bonds
Triple Bonds
Lone Pairs/Nonbonded Pairs
Drawing Structures
Types of structures:
Condensed
Expanded
Line-bond
Skeletal
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Functional Groups
Hydrocarbons
Alkanes =
[Carbon single bonds]
Alkenes =
[Carbon double bonds]
Alkynes =
[Carbon triple bonds]
Aromatics =
[Benzene ring]
Heteroatoms
Alkyl Halide =
[RX]
Alcohol =
[ROH]
Ether =
[ROR]
Amine =
[NRHH] or [NRHR] or [NRRR]
Thiol =
[RSH]
Carbonyl Groups
Aldehyde =
[RCHO]
Ketone =
[RCOR]
Carboxylic Acid =
[RCOOH]
[RCO2H]
Ester =
[RCOOR]
[RCO2R]
Amide =
[RCONH2]
[RCONHR]
[RCON(R)2]
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