CTD 446 Final Exam Review
• Difference between costume and dress
➢ Dress enhances an individual’s identity whereas costume can conceal true identity
• 2 similarities between costume in performing arts and everyday life dress
➢ They both lend credibility and the ability to identify
• 2 main differences (special requirements of costume in performing arts) between costume and dress
➢ Exaggeration and Accommodation
➢ Performer in relation to costume
➢ Costume related to type of performance
• Why might exaggeration be necessary for theater space and lighting when it comes to costume?
➢ To emphasize important aspects
• 3 examples for why accommodation to body action and demands for theater life might be necessary
when it comes to costume
1. Able to move more easily
2. Meet extraordinary requirements of movement (Cirque de Soliel)
3. Sturdiness, it needs to be able to hold up to multiple performances and cleanings, or lack there of
• 3 pieces of important information about costume in the performing arts
1. Communicates ideas quickly (short time to view character)
2. Conveys world of information-time period, locale, social class, time of day, occupation, character
relationship, importance of character, etc.
3. Understanding how to create and view costumes based on cultural knowledge
• Aesthetics of dress definition
➢ Uses our five senses in the processes of dressing ourselves and perceiving others
• What is the personal aesthetic of dress associated with?
➢ A pleasurable feeling or emotion that arises with stimulating sensory organs
• What do human beings often evaluate pleasing sensory experience as?
➢ Beauty. This suggests that there is no universal standard of beauty
• 3 steps to assessing beauty
1. Use sense to register
2. React personally to it
3. Make sense of it within a cultural context
• 2 types of professionals in aesthetics of dress
➢ Training to create items for body modification and supplement
➢ Training to evaluate or critique
• 4 examples of professionals that train to create items for body modification and supplement
➢ Designers and manufacturers of apparel ➢ Cosmetics
• 5 examples of professionals that train to evaluate or critique dress
➢ retail buyers
➢ fashion commentators
➢ stylists for shoots/shows
➢ advertising agencies
• 3 universals in the art of dress
➢ 1. Enhancement of self
➢ 2. Level of enthusiasm differs by individual
➢ 3. Exists in all scales of culture
• What is the aesthetic evaluation of the structure of a body of dress based on?
➢ The total effect of supplements and modifications to body
• What is the meaning of dress?
➢ The wide variety of ways individuals and groups interpret particular items of dress, dress ensembles,
and dress practices
• What is the meaning of the total form of dress?
➢ Understood by breaking down into design elements (colors, lines, shapes, textures) and analyzing
their organization into a whole
• What does the analysis of the meaning of dress involve?
➢ The emotional, value-laden responses to the aesthetic form of dress and understanding the reasons
why certain arguments of dress may be thought more beautiful or appropriate than others
• Cultural ideals definition
➢ consensus about an ideal based on values of members of society
• What is the goal of the cultural idea?
➢ To become the ideal, but is achieved by only a few people
• What is the oldest beauty contest?
➢ Paris choosing the most beautiful Greek goddess, Venus, over Juno and Minerva
• When and where did Miss American begin?
➢ Atlantic City, 1921
• What are examples of cultural standards for beauty that can be achieved by many people?
➢ Clean shirt, pressed pants, and shined shoes
• What do beauty ideals reflect?
➢ What is important to the culture at the time
• How do cultural ideals differ from cultural standards? ➢ Cultural standards represent something measurable and achievable by many people, whereas cultural
ideals are achieved by few
• 3 standards of dress valued around the world
➢ Cleanliness, health, and youth
• What did anthropologists recognize early on when it comes to cultural standards in contract to cultural
➢ Cultural standards provide order in people’s lives. Such standards enable individuals to adopt modes
of behavior from a limited range of possibilities rather than from an infinite number of conceivable
• Why do cultural standards limit a person’s practice of the art of dress?
➢ They limit the number of forms from which selections can be made
• Fashion leaders
➢ Instigate change
• Fashion followers
➢ Encourage or discourage change
• What 3 ways do social roles affect choice for dress?
➢ 1. Materials obtainable locally or through trade and the type of prevailing technology relate to the
scale of culture and affect the limits or variety in types of dress available
➢ 2. An individual’s social role in the society influences the daily practice of the art of dress
➢ 3. Individual characteristics and idiosyncratic preferences also play a part in choices of dress
• What are 2 examples of how materials obtainable and the type of prevailing technology relate to the
scale or culture and affect the limits or variety in types of dress available?
➢ Small scale culture – come from environment or trade
➢ Global scale culture – synthetic fibers, produced by assembly line
• What factors encourage conformity in dress?
➢ Similar social roles encourage the act of conformity in dress as well as gender, family affiliation,
occupation, religion, and political affiliation
• What does individual dress convey?
➢ Dress conveys aesthetic, social, cultural, and psychological significance with a range of
➢ Express modesty, importance of person display, thrift
➢ Observer can only guess what is meant by aesthetic display of external cues
• How are fashion leaders an example of conforming and being an individual?
➢ They select certain trends while rejecting others, they have highly visible ways to display dress, and
have wealth to afford
• What are two examples of fashion leaders by definition?
➢ Jacqueline Kennedy and Princess Diana
• Definition of art ➢ Process and artifact, individuals carry out activities that end in the production of artifacts whose
form and composition can be assessed for the skillful arrangement of formal elements having
significance to the viewer
• Process for creating and assessing art (2 steps: two possible responses)
➢ 1. Artifact is produced
➢ 2. Assessed for skill of arrangement and significance
➢ 3. It is either significant or not significant depending if it arouses response in the viewer
• Definition of cultural authentication
➢ The process of selectively borrowing a cultural object and making it a part of the receiving culture
• What 4 processes are involved in the transformation of cultural authentication?
➢ 1. The object is selected and used
➢ 2. It is char