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Exercise Science
ES 310

310 EXAM 1 Introduction to Fitness 1. What are the five components of health related fitness (HRF) and gold standard for testing - Cardiorespiratory Endurance: VO2 max - Body composition: hydrostatic weigh in -Muscular Strength: 1 rep max - Muscular Endurance: sit ups, curls, push ups - Low Back Function and flexibility: sit and reach 2. What are 3 reasons for assessing HRF? Baseline data, Diagnostic, Research 3. What criteria must a new test for a specific component of fitness meet? - Validity and Reliability 4. What is the difference between inter and intra tester reliability? -Intra: same person same results 3 times -Inter: different person same results as the other person measuring at same skill level 150min/ week of moderate intensity (3-6 METS) exercise cuts risks of dying prematurely by 25% Regulation that health and human services created 30min a day 5 days a week Clinical Exercise Testing: 1. What tool is used to determine if it is safe to test a client/patient? - Pre- participation health screening (PAR-Q) Physical activity readiness Questionnaire 2. What does (should) this tool screen for? - identification of medical contradictions to exercise -ID people at risk of disease (Risk factors) -ID clinically significant diseaseID special needs 3. What are the positive risk factors for CVD? -Family history MI, death before 55 males, 65 females (first degree relative) - Cigarette current smoker of quit within 6 months - Hypertension Systolic >140mmHg Diastolic > 90mmHg (2 times) or on BP meds - Hyper cholesterol total of 200mg/dL HDL < 40 LDL 100mg/dL -Prediabetes Fasting glucose >100mg/dL but <126mg/dL (2times) -Obesity BMI of 30kg/m^2 waist >100cm women > 88cm - Sedentary life not having 30min moderate intensity 3 days a week for 3 months Negative risk factor? - HDL >60 mg/dL -take away 1 risk factor (cardioprotective) 4. Which category of patients requires a medical exam and the presence of a physician for exercise testing? -Moderate risk with VO2max – men >45 women>55 or two or more risk factors -High risk with submax and VO2max –any symptoms of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease - pain chest, neck, arms. Shortness of breath, dizzy, ankle edema. _______________________________Murmur, tachycardia, dyspnea 5. Following health risk appraisal, what legal step should be performed prior to assessing an individual? - informed consent document 6. Can you list and discuss 5 things that should be on this document? 1) explain test 2) risks, 3) responsibilities, 4) benefits, 5) inquires, 6) medical records, 7)freedom to end it 7. Submaximal: accurate, safer, cheaper, not as good at detecting CAD use if high risk, age, money, time maximal exercise test: direct measurement, takes longer can use if physician present with mod, high 8. What are the criteria for terminating an exercise test prematurely? - onset of angina or symptoms (tightness chest) shortness breath -Systolic drops > 10mmHg from baseline -blood pressure rises SBP> 250mmHg DBP >115mmHg -poor perfusion light headed -failure of HR to increase -subjects request to stop - physical problem or severe fatigue -failure of exercise equipment 9. Why you can use a submaximal exercise test to predict VO2max? –steady state HR, linear relationship between HR and Work load. Mechanically efficiency is the same for everyone 220- age to get max heart rate then you plot a graph using submax values and chart Grade on X and HR on Y and draw a line 10. What is the perceived exertion scale, and how do you use it during exercise testing? -Scale of psycho-phyiological effects of exercise and how people feel, ask them during test 11. In what order should the tests be performed during a fitness evaluation? - Resting values, Body Comp, Cardiorespiratory, Strength endurance, flexibility 12. Treadmill: walking natural activity, set the pace, greatest load on heart, easy to duplicate, max or sub disadvantage: expensive, measurements difficult, one subject, EKG artifact, calibration Cycle Ergometer: Portable, moderately priced, easy measurements, orthopedic problems disadvantage: work rate is subject dependent, smaller mm, not normal activity, 1 subject Step Test: Portable, in expensive, constant height, work=force x distance, more than 1 person disadvantage: work rate dependent, difficult to measure Purpose of Clinical Exercise Testing 1. To determine feasibility (i.e. safety) of exercise participation(i.e. to stratify someone according to their risk factor status) 2. To collect baseline data for exercise participation 3. To collect follow-up data to determine program effectiveness 4. To use as a motivational tool (e.g. goal attainment) 5. To assist in the diagnosis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease During exercise increase sympathetic activity - HR increases, myocardial VO2 increases, heart demands more oxygen. Increase BF to coronary arteries. -if plaque narrowed those arteries, BF will not match the demand, myocardium becomes ischemic or _______ventricular ectopic activity- PVC, abnormal flutter fib Stop exercising quickly – venous return goes down, cardiac output goes down, BP drops, coronary perfusion leading to ischemia, ectopic ventricles. – need to cool down, lower intensity before stopping. Morbidity: hospital Mortality: death Pre-test instructions: get good sleep, no alcohol, tea, coffee or food 3 hours before test, drink water, proper clothing, avoid strenuous activity the day before Submax test: stop at 85% of max and extrapolate to max or when 2 HR above 110 are achieved Ignore HR under 110 need to hit steady state. Bioenergetics : food to energy 1. Energy: capacity to do work work: the product of force acting through a distance FxD power: work output per unit time. W/time 2. What is the molecule used to provide energy during muscular contraction? ATP 3.Which metabolic pathway is primarily used to produce ATP during maximal exercise lasting 5 seconds? Glycolysis or ATP-CP system 60 seconds? glycolysis 10 minutes? Oxidative 4. Which substrates are used for the production of ATP during maximal exercise lasting 3 minutes? 50% aerobic 50% anaerobic carbohydrates and fat 5. What molecul
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