310 EXAM 1
Introduction to Fitness
1. What are the five components of health related fitness (HRF) and gold standard for testing
- Cardiorespiratory Endurance: VO2 max
- Body composition: hydrostatic weigh in
-Muscular Strength: 1 rep max
- Muscular Endurance: sit ups, curls, push ups
- Low Back Function and flexibility: sit and reach
2. What are 3 reasons for assessing HRF?
Baseline data, Diagnostic, Research
3. What criteria must a new test for a specific component of fitness meet?
- Validity and Reliability
4. What is the difference between inter and intra tester reliability?
-Intra: same person same results 3 times
-Inter: different person same results as the other person measuring at same skill level
150min/ week of moderate intensity (3-6 METS) exercise cuts risks of dying prematurely by 25%
Regulation that health and human services created 30min a day 5 days a week
Clinical Exercise Testing:
1. What tool is used to determine if it is safe to test a client/patient?
- Pre- participation health screening (PAR-Q) Physical activity readiness Questionnaire
2. What does (should) this tool screen for?
- identification of medical contradictions to exercise
-ID people at risk of disease (Risk factors)
-ID clinically significant diseaseID special needs
3. What are the positive risk factors for CVD?
-Family history MI, death before 55 males, 65 females (first degree relative)
- Cigarette current smoker of quit within 6 months
- Hypertension Systolic >140mmHg Diastolic > 90mmHg (2 times) or on BP
- Hyper cholesterol total of 200mg/dL HDL < 40 LDL 100mg/dL
-Prediabetes Fasting glucose >100mg/dL but <126mg/dL (2times)
-Obesity BMI of 30kg/m^2 waist >100cm women > 88cm
- Sedentary life not having 30min moderate intensity 3 days a week for 3 months
Negative risk factor? - HDL >60 mg/dL -take away 1 risk factor (cardioprotective)
4. Which category of patients requires a medical exam and the presence of a physician for exercise
-Moderate risk with VO2max – men >45 women>55 or two or more risk factors -High risk with submax and VO2max –any symptoms of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease
- pain chest, neck, arms. Shortness of breath, dizzy, ankle
edema. _______________________________Murmur, tachycardia, dyspnea
5. Following health risk appraisal, what legal step should be performed prior to assessing an
- informed consent document
6. Can you list and discuss 5 things that should be on this document?
1) explain test 2) risks, 3) responsibilities, 4) benefits, 5) inquires, 6) medical records,
7)freedom to end it
7. Submaximal: accurate, safer, cheaper, not as good at detecting CAD use if high risk, age,
maximal exercise test: direct measurement, takes longer can use if physician present with mod,
8. What are the criteria for terminating an exercise test prematurely?
- onset of angina or symptoms (tightness chest) shortness breath
-Systolic drops > 10mmHg from baseline
-blood pressure rises SBP> 250mmHg DBP >115mmHg
-poor perfusion light headed
-failure of HR to increase
-subjects request to stop
- physical problem or severe fatigue
-failure of exercise equipment
9. Why you can use a submaximal exercise test to predict VO2max? –steady state HR, linear
relationship between HR and Work load. Mechanically efficiency is the same for everyone
220- age to get max heart rate then you plot a graph using submax values and chart Grade on X and HR on Y and
draw a line
10. What is the perceived exertion scale, and how do you use it during exercise testing?
-Scale of psycho-phyiological effects of exercise and how people feel, ask them during test
11. In what order should the tests be performed during a fitness evaluation?
- Resting values, Body Comp, Cardiorespiratory, Strength endurance, flexibility
12. Treadmill: walking natural activity, set the pace, greatest load on heart, easy to duplicate, max or
disadvantage: expensive, measurements difficult, one subject, EKG artifact,
Cycle Ergometer: Portable, moderately priced, easy measurements, orthopedic problems
disadvantage: work rate is subject dependent, smaller mm, not normal activity, 1
Step Test: Portable, in expensive, constant height, work=force x distance, more than 1 person
disadvantage: work rate dependent, difficult to measure Purpose of Clinical Exercise Testing
1. To determine feasibility (i.e. safety) of exercise participation(i.e. to stratify someone according to
their risk factor status)
2. To collect baseline data for exercise participation
3. To collect follow-up data to determine program effectiveness
4. To use as a motivational tool (e.g. goal attainment)
5. To assist in the diagnosis of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease
During exercise increase sympathetic activity - HR increases, myocardial VO2 increases, heart
demands more oxygen. Increase BF to coronary arteries.
-if plaque narrowed those arteries, BF will not match the demand, myocardium becomes
ischemic or _______ventricular ectopic activity- PVC, abnormal flutter fib
Stop exercising quickly – venous return goes down, cardiac output goes down, BP drops, coronary
perfusion leading to ischemia, ectopic ventricles. – need to cool down, lower intensity before
Morbidity: hospital Mortality: death
Pre-test instructions: get good sleep, no alcohol, tea, coffee or food 3 hours before test, drink water,
proper clothing, avoid strenuous activity the day before
Submax test: stop at 85% of max and extrapolate to max or when 2 HR above 110 are achieved
Ignore HR under 110 need to hit steady state.
Bioenergetics : food to energy
1. Energy: capacity to do work
work: the product of force acting through a distance FxD
power: work output per unit time. W/time
2. What is the molecule used to provide energy during muscular contraction?
3.Which metabolic pathway is primarily used to produce ATP during maximal exercise lasting
5 seconds? Glycolysis or ATP-CP system 60 seconds? glycolysis 10 minutes?
4. Which substrates are used for the production of ATP during maximal exercise lasting 3 minutes?
50% aerobic 50% anaerobic carbohydrates and fat
5. What molecul