SOC 101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Fetus, Gemeinschaft And Gesellschaft, Pertussis

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Exam 3 Study Guide
Material from earlier in the semester:
Throughout the semester (beginning in Ch. 1) have a general understanding of:
Conflict theory
Functionalism/Functionalist theory
Symbolic interactionism
For each, know main tenets and leading theorists
Material from the last section of the semester:
Health, Illness, & Disability
Social construction of health (e.g., addiction, obesity, breastfeeding)
o Health & Illness = socially constructed
Case Study: addiction
Opioid
Treated differently
o How we view has a very dramatic effect on how we treat problem
o Defining something as healthy/unhealthy determines moral values
Ex. Smoking, Obesity
o Me ad Woe’s Health Depictios
Men being big and muscular
Woman being very thin
Sick role
o You are not held responsible for being sick
o You are exempt from your normal responsibilities
o You don’t like the role
o You will get competent help so you can return to your routines
o People who seek approved help are given sympathy and encouragement
Those who do not are given the cold shoulder
o Those who do not get competent help are considered responsible for being sick, are refused the
right to claim sympathy from others, and are denied permission to be excused from their normal
duties
They are considered to be wrongfully claiming the sick role
o To prevent too many people from claiming the sick role:
Gatekeepers:
For children, it’s the parents
o They decide if their child is faking or has genuine symptoms
o They then decide if the symptoms are severe enough to keep the child
home from school or to take them to the doctor
Adults can bypass their gatekeeper for a few days but eventually employers will
insist on a doctor’s note
Medicalization of society (e.g., social phobia, homosexuality)
o Definition: refers to the process of turning something that was not previously considered an issue
for physicians into a medical matter
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Ex. “Bad” behavior
Crime becomes not a willful behavior that should be punished, but a symptom of
unresolved mental problems that were created during childhood
These problems need to be treated by doctors
Three theoretical perspectives give us contrasting views of the medicalization of human conditions
Symbolic interactionists
Would analyze how the medical establishment has managed to get wrinkles, acne,
balding, sagging chins, and even ‘deficient’ eyebrows redefined from normal
problems in life to medical problems
Functionalists
Would stress how medicalizing human conditions is functional for the medical
establishment, that it broadens its customer base
Conflict sociologists
Would agree, but stress how medicalizing society increases the power and wealth
of the medical establishment
o The more conditions of life that physicians and drug companies can
medicalize, the greater their profits and power
Disability rights movement
o Disabling Environment: one that is harmful to people’s health
o
Social model of disability vs. medical model of disability
o
Health care as a commodity
o Definition: A commodity means something to be bought and sold, such as cars or clothing
o The natural outcome is that the rich will have access to one type or medical care, and the poor to
another
o Medical care in the United States is not the right of citizens, but is rather a commodity for sale
o Those who have more money can buy quality health care; those who have little money have to
settle for less, or even for none
Medical experiments
o The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment
The US Public Health Service did not tell 399 African American men in Mississippi that
they had syphilis
Doctors examined them once a year, recording their symptoms and letting the disease kill
them
o The Guatemalan Experiment
1940s
US health researchers purposely infected hundreds of prisoners, psychiatric patients, and
sex workers with syphilis and gonorrhea so they could determine how good the new drug
penicillin was
o The Cold War Experiments
Radiation experiments similar to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment were conducted on
unsuspecting subjects simply because government wanted information
Some soldiers were given LSD
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In Palmetto, Florida, officials released whooping cough viruses into the air, killing a
dozen children
Deadly chemical and biological agents, such as sarin, were sprayed onto naval ships to
see if the sailors’ new protective clothing worked
In 2003, Congress approved a bill to provide health care for the 5,842 soldiers
harmed by these secret tests
Film, Lives Worth Living
Education
3 expansions of U.S. public education system
o Graduation from high school became more common, and more students wanted a college
education
Free education stopped with high school
The nearest colleges were too far and the cost of tuition and loding was too great
Few high school graduates were able to attend college
o
Socioeconomic achievement gap
Relationship between education and class inequality
o Mechanisms by which education increases, decreases, & reflects social inequality
Education in global perspective (text)
3 theoretical perspectives of education (funct, conflict, SI) (text)
Social Change and the Environment
What is social change
o Definition A shift in the characteristics of culture and society
4 main social revolutions (Industrial, Microchip, etc)
o First -
Allowed hunting and gathering societies to develop into horticultural and pastoral
societies
o Second
Brought on by the plow
Agricultural societies emerged
o Third
Prompted by the invention of the steam engine
Ushered in the Industrial Revolution
o Fourth
Stimulated by the invention of the microchip
Gemeinschaft vs. gesellschaft
o Used to indicate the shift in society from agricultural to industrial
o Gemeinschaft (traditional)
Societies are small, rural, and slow-changing
Men dominate social life
Divisions of labor between men and woman are rigid
People live in extended families
Have little to no formal education
Treat illnesses at home
Tend to see morals in absolute terms
Consider the past the key for dealing with the present
o Gesellschaft (modern)
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Document Summary

1) have a general understanding of: conflict theory, functionalism/functionalist theory, symbolic interactionism. For each, know main tenets and leading theorists. Material from the last section of the semester: In palmetto, florida, officials released whooping cough viruses into the air, killing a dozen children: deadly chemical and biological agents, such as sarin, were sprayed onto naval ships to see if the sailors" new protective clothing worked. In 2003, congress approved a bill to provide health care for the 5,842 soldiers harmed by these secret tests: film, lives worth living. Collective behavior and social movements: collective behavior [lecture & text, actions by a group of people who bypass the usual norms governing their behavior and do something unusual, ex. Norm is voting (individual), collective is protesting(group: can be violent or non-violent, want social change, trying to prevent social change, etc. (not just political, ex.