Comm 107 notes from entire year

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COMM 107
Jeff Mc Kinney

Communications 107 (Entire Semester's Notes)  models of communication - linear > source encodes message, sends to receiver through one or more sensory channels, receive receives and decodes message - interactional (see below) - transactional > communicators simultaneously process messages > communicator a encodes message and sends, communicator b encodes feedback and sends, who decodes it; these steps are not mutually exclusive  interactional model of communication: - source encodes and sends a message to a receiver (through one or more of the sensory channels) - receiver receives and encodes the message and then encodes feedback and sends it to the source - source decodes the feedback message - based on the original message sent and the feedback received, the source encodes a new message that adjusts to the feedback (adaptation)  types of noise (any external interference in the communication process): - environmental- outside interference that prevents the receiver from gaining the message - physiological impairment- when a physical problem blocks the effective sending or receiving of a message - semantic- when problems arise regarding the meaning of words - syntactical- inappropriate grammatical usage - organizational- when source fails to realize that certain ideas are best grasped when presented in a structured order - cultural- preconceived, unyielding attitudes derived from a group or society about how members of that culture should act or in what they should or should not believe - psychological- when stress, frustration, or irritation causes us to send or receive message ineffectively  ethnocentrism - we consider the views and standards of our own in-group (a collectivity with which an individual identifies) as much more important than any out-groups (a collectivity with which an individual does not identify) - out-groups are at a disadvantage because we constantly make judgments about them based on our standards and values and reject the other group's standards and values  4 relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication: - substituting: nonverbal message replaces verbal message; ex- nod head to indicate yes instead of answering verbally - conflicting: verbal and nonverbal message contrast to one another; ex- saying yes but shaking head no - complementing: nonverbal message accompanies verbal message; ex- say yes and nod head yes - accenting: nonverbal message stresses the verbal message; ex- say yes and body language indicates yes  emblem- nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition consisting of one or two words - many are culture specific  types of listening: - discriminative- attempt to distinguish auditory and visual stimuli - comprehension- objective is to recognize and retain the information - therapeutic- requires a listener to learn to ask questions, when to stimulate further discussion, and when, if ever, to give advice - critical- centers on the listener evaluating the message that has been received - appreciative- takes place when a person engages in enjoyment of or sensory stimulation to a message, such as listening to humorous speakers, comedians, or music videos  listening model: - reception: reception of a stimulus or message, both auditory and visual - attention: represents focus on a specific stimulus selected from all the stimuli received at any given moment; other stimuli recede so we can concentrate on a specific word or visual symbol - assignment of meaning: process of putting the stimulus into some predetermined category - response: an intellectual or emotional reaction to the message  global vs. linear brain characteristics: - linear (left hemisphere) > listen and learn best when materials are presented in structured ways > prefer specifics and logic-based arguments > tend to take information at face value so abstractions and generalizations don't add much to their learning > straight-line in learning preferences - global (right hemisphere) > intuitive, spatial, visual, and concrete matters > prefer examples rather than technical explanations > prefer knowing that the information can be useful and applied > creative and rely on intuitive thinking > can follow visual and pictographic rather than written instructions > enjoys interaction rather than listening to others talk > generalized rather than specific description  green and red flag words/messages - words that trigger emotional responses - listeners benefit from recognizing what their emotional biases are and how those biases affect interpretations of messages - red flags: negative reactions - green flags: positive stimulators  communication apprehension - "shyness" - communicatively anxious person is aware of the anxiety because intrapersonal messages clearly warn of the fear; messages warn of unfavorable outcomes and the person experiences a sense of impending doom - individuals with this think and feel that one or more of their basic needs is being attacked and often have inaccurate self-concepts  self-perception - how a person views him/herself will determine most of that individual's actions and choices in life - real self: what you think of yourself when you are being most honest about your interests, thoughts, emotions, and needs - ideal self: who you would like to be or think you should be; "the perfect you" - public self: the one you let others know/see  types of power (ability to control what happens and create things you want to happen and block things you don't want to happen; ability to choose for yourself or control choices of others): - expert: your capacity to influence another person because of the knowledge and skills you are presumed to have - referent: based on personal loyalty, friendship, affection, and admiration - reward: requires that you be perceived as the best or only source of desired rewards - coercive: based on possible negative outcomes that are used as weapons; you need to 1. know what consequences the other person fears most 2. acquire the weapons 3. communicate that you have them 4. persuade other person that you're willing to use them - legitimate: stems from one person's perception that another person has the right to make requests of him or her because of the position that the other person occupies or because of the nature of the relationship  5 approaches/styles for conflict management: - avoidance- not confronting the conflict; they sidestep, postpone, or ignore the issue no matter how unpleasant - accommodation/smoothing over- accommodators put the needs of others ahead of their own, thereby giving in; smoothing over is a form of accommodation that seeks above all else to preserve the image that everything is okay - compromise- brings concerns out into the open in an attempt to satisfy the needs of both parties - competition/aggression- main element is power; its purpose is to get another person to comply with or accept your point of view or to do something that person may not want to do; many European Americans are seen as aggressive because of the 'win at all costs' attitude - integration- concerned about their own needs as well as those of the other person but they will not settle for a partially satisfying solution; want a win-win resolution and collaborate  behavior interview - designed to allow employers to know what skills the applicant may have and how these skills would translate into performance on the job - ask questions about a certain situation/how you handled it, etc. - how to answer behavior interview questions (STAR model): > story, situation, task, action, result > example: Story Situation Task Action Result Example Advertising My goal was to I designed a We signed revenue generate new new contracts with declined with ideas, materials promotional 15 former several key and incentives packet to go advertisers for account that would with the rate daily ads and accounts. result in at sheet and five for special least a 15% outlined our supplements. increase from benefits vs We increased the year competitors. our new before. advertisers by 20 percent over the same period last year.  tuckerman group model - forming: member can come together because they are appointed to accomplish a t
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