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COMM 107 Exam 2 Study Guide 4.0 GPA Student

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University of Maryland
COMM 107

COMM 107 Exam 2 Study Guide Key Concepts Ch. 4 • The Listening Process o Reception  Auditory AND visual  Nonverbal feedback plays a key role  Listeners can recall only about a quarter of what they hear o Attention  Focusing on specific stimuli  Attention span: 7-20 minutes  Working memory • Access long-term memory to retrieve and store stimuli while paying attention to a speakers message  Role of concentration/motivation • Can listen faster than we can talk  Paraphrasing can help better attend to a message o Perception  Screening process  Perceptual filter • Strains the stimuli you receive to separate what makes sense from what doesn’t so that you can organize and interpret the message • Includes: o Background o Culture o Roles you play (ex. child, student, parent) o Beliefs o Mental and physical states o Attitudes/values  Selective perception narrows attention  No one ever shares the exact meaning of a message o Assignment of Meaning  Putting a stimulus into pre-determined categories  Schema • Scripts for processing information • Created by culture, background, family, education and experience • Ex. Understanding a discussion of some of the customs and traditions on a college campus may be difficult for first-year students because they do not have the cognitive schema to relate to the information  Linear learners/listeners • Straight-line in their learning process • They tend to take information at face value, abstractions and generalizations don’t add much to their learning.  Global listeners/learners • Tend to be creative and rely on intuitive thinking, can follow visual and pictographic rather than written instructions, and enjoys interaction rather than just listening to others talk  Low-context culture: give and receive a lot of information  High-context culture: information in the communicator and situation o Response  Continue information processing with an internal and/or external response  Asking questions can assist in storing information  Be responsive to verbal or nonverbal cues  o Purposes of Listening  Discriminative Listening • Distinguish auditory and visual stimuli  Comprehension Listening • Recognize and retain information  Therapeutic Listening • Listening to help someone deal with a problem  Critical Listening • Evaluating the message that has been received  Appreciative Listening • Engages in enjoyment of or sensory stimulation to a message Ch. 7 • Participating in Conversations o Small Talk  An exchange of information with someone on a surface level • Conversational Nonverbal Skills o Could be quick glances away may indicate that the person is anxious to leave and the same may be implied when that person glances repeatedly at a smart phone, looks around the room, or shifts form one foot to the other. • Causes of Conflict o Goals to be pursued o Allocation of resources o Decisions to be made o Behaviors that are considered inappropriate • Levels of Conflict o Level 1- no conflict o Level 2- Latent conflict  One person senses conflict  Other person does not agree o Level 3-problems to solve  People express concerns  People confront problems  Avoid personal attacks o Level 4- Dispute  Problem to solve carries needs-centered conflict  Individuals fight about issue, but personal attacks move conflict toward destructive orientation o Level 5-Help  People may get help when dispute becomes unmanageable  Help can come from friends, mental health professionals, conciliators, mediators, arbitrators, or adjudicators  Third party should be neutral and invited  Help can be directive or nondirective  Third party should manage procedure, not solve dispute (unless required to do so by law)  Persons forced into solutions almost always resent them o Level 6- Fight of flight  If help fails or help is not sought: • People move against one another • People try to defeat one another • People try to destroy one another • People try to escape the situation  Fight: physical or verbal aggression, battering, or even murder take place  Flight: Getting divorced or quitting job may be action chosen o Level 7  When people remain at Level 6 for a long time, sustaining conflict becomes more important than resolving it  Conflict may continue until people destroy one another or give up • Styles of Conflict Management o Avoidance  Conflict avoidance • Not confronting the conflict o Accommodation/Smoothing Over  Conflict accommodation • People who put the needs of others ahead of their own, thereby giving in  Conflict smoothing over • Seeking above all else to preserve the image that everything is okay. Through smoothing over, people sometimes get what they want, but just as often they do not. o Compromise  Brings concerns out into the open in an attempt to satisfy the needs of both parties. o Competition/Aggression  Conflict competition • Its purpose is to “get another person to comply with or accept your point of view, or to do something that person may not want to do.” o Integration  People who are concerned about their own needs as well as those of the other person. • Assertive Communication o A form of communication within conflict resolution that takes place when a person stands up for his or her rights without attacking others • DESC Scripting o Describing  Describe specifically the bothersome behavior o Expressing  Say what you think and feel about the behavior o Specifying  Ask for a different, specific behavior o Consequences 
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