Abnormal Child Psychopathology Final Study Guide.docx

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 330
Professor
Andrea Chronis- Tuscano

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Description
Abnormal Child Psychopathology Exam 1: Theories, Research Methods, Assessment, Treatment, ADHD  1/5 children in US experience difficulty w/ behavior and emotion  1/8 have diagnosable disorder that cause impairment in daily fx  Less than 10% children receive help Exam 2: CBT for Preschoolers, Preschool Depression, Anxiety, Depression, Mood Disorders, ODD/CD Exam 3: Autism, Eating Disorders, Child Maltreatment, Substance Use ADHD ADHD Assessment and Tx ~50% of children referred to clincs are referred for ADHD - Need to address cross situational impairments related problems [implement tx in ALL settings when impaired] Diagnostic Criteria symptoms present before age 7 (DSM 5 before age 12) Medication: stimulants (Ritalin, Concerta, Adderall) effective and Strattera (non- stimulant)  Sx cause impairment present in 2+ settings  Impairment in social, academic, occupational fx - Effective short term tx as dec disruption 1. Inattention  remains stable across development - should always be combined w/ behavioral  No close attention to detail management  Can’t follow through/ organize Evidence Based Assessment  Avoid difficult task b/c can’t sustain attention - Clinical Interviews, tarent/ parent questionnaires  Forgetful and difficulty listening and IQ test, behavioral observations 2. Hyperactivity- Impulsivity declines across development Behavioral Parent Training group based, 8-16 sessions  Difficulty playing/ engaging in activities - & Behavioral Classroom Management  Talk excessively and interrupts - Psychoeducation, structure/ routine, clear rules, DRC, time out, planned ignoring  Impatient and actions not goal directed  Inability resist immediate gratification Intensive Summer tx Programssocial skills training, group  DSM Criteria ISSUES based academic and recreational activities, parents attend - Vague terms and developmentally insensitive weekly group parent training - Trials based on boys and onset req before age 7 - Categorical (not continuous) view MTA Study - Combined type tx - Symptoms required to be across 2 settings - Medication Management- incorporate parent and Subtypes: - Combined type- problems inhibiting behavior teacher ratings of improvement and monthly med - Predominantly inattentive subtype- sluggish visit w/ supportive therapy and Psychoeducation cognitive tempo - Behavioral- parent training, school intervention  all groups experience reduced symptoms - Predominantly hyperactive/ impulsive subtype Associated Problems  Combined tx superior at parent satisfaction, more 1. Peer Problems- deficit in appropriate social likely to normalize behavior, improvement in fx behavior impairment a. inattentive sx > ignored Design Issues b. H/I sx > actively rejected - Timing of assessment relative to tx intensity 2. Family Dysfunction- family problems impact (behavior faded) severity/ course outcomes of ADHD - 2/3 received mediaction in community comparison 3. Self Esteem- inflated  positive illusory bias group a. Comorbid with depression  Deficits in Executive Fx: Cognitive processes activate, integrate, manage other brain functions  Barkley’s Theory- behavioral disinhibition is basis of executive fx deficits in ADHD Psychiatric Comorbidity - 50% comorbid w/ ODD/CD & learning disabilities - Serious when ADHD and CD present - Comorbid with depression and suicide - Substance abuse and risky sex - Multifinality: ADHD  substance abuse/ eating disorder/ depression/ CD/ suicide Causes of ADHD Biological Basis- strong genetic contribution - Heritability of .80- .85 - Biological differences in brain structure and fx not caused by poor parenting or food intake Mood Disorders Anxiety Depression- onset 13-15 yrs and earlier onset best Prevalence 5-15% predictor of later psychopathology 3 Interrelated Systems:  Irritability more common in children than dep. 1. Physical- increased heart rate, upset stomach, Mood muscle tension, vomiting 2. Behavioral- avoidance, crying, nail biting, tantrums  Affect Regulation- too much neg emotion  Other disorders precede depression when 3. Cognitive- thoughts of being incompetent, worry, comorbid enhanced attention to threat  Girls twice as likely to be depressed 1. Separation Anxiety Disorder (childhood disorder)  Anxiety being apart from parents/ away from home (interpersonally oriented, high rejection sensitivity) o Girls more ruminative coping style than  One of most common anxiety disorders boys  Normative 7months- preschool  MDD and Bipolar run in families family history  2/3 comorbid anxiety disorder, 50% develop best predictor depression  Neurotransmitter: serotonin, dopamine,  1/3 persist into adulthood norepinephrine deficiencies  anti- depressants 2. Specific Phobia inc levels of neurotransmitters in brain  Extreme and irrational fear of objects/ situations for 1. Major Depressive Disorder- depressed mood and at least 6 months (must cause impairment) anhedonia  Anhedonia- loss of interest in things used to  5 Subtypes: animal, natural envi, blood injection- enjoy injury, situational, other  One of most common anxiety disorders - Also changes in sleep, appetite, less energy, poor [ ]  Peak between age 10-13 - 90% comorbid w/ ANX, CD, ADHD, SU, DYS, 3. Social Phobia/ Anxiety BPD  Fear of social or performance situations exposing 2. Dysthymia- lower intensity chronic depression child to judgment/ embarrassment - Depressed/ irritable mood and 2+ sx  Worry about negative evaluation - Lasts at least 1 year and onset 11-12 yrs  1-3% of children and adolescents - Average duration is 3 years 4. Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 50% comorbid ANX, CD, ADHD  Worry about many events/ activities on most days 3. Double Depression- dysthymia + an episode of MDD for at least 6 months 5. Panic Disorder - Chronic low grade depression that worsens at a point  unexpected recurrent panic attacks and worry about future panic attacks MDD is episodic average duration of MD episode is 8  Sx NOT physical harmful months - 40% children remit w/in 6 months  With or w/o agoraphobia Preschool- withdrawn, irritable, anhedonia, guilt, fatigue  Lowest remission rate for anxiety disorders School Age- disruptive behavior, somatic complaints, 6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  Persistent and intrusive irrational thoughts/ academic difficulties Teens- cognitive distortions, persistent sadness impulses  Repetitive and intentional beh
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