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Study Guide

[BIL 150] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 46 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIL 150
Professor
Mallery Charles
Study Guide
Final

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UM
BIL 150
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2: Scientific Method
Cell - basic unit of life
Living condition - all life shares carbon based chemistry, needs
water, and self-replicates
Inductive reasoning - specific case to general principle
Deductive reasoning - general case to the specific
Levels of Biological Organization
Biosphere - all environments on Earth inhabited by life
Ecosystem - tropical rain forest
Biotic factors - all organisms living in an area
Abiotic factors - physical components of environment
Community - all organisms in the system
Population - all interbreeding individuals of one species
Organism - an individual living entity
Tissue - groups of similar cells, with a specific function
Cell - ultimate unit of living matter, contains:
Macromolecule - polymer of biological molecules (carbs,
lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
Molecules - cluster of atoms with unique chemical
properties
Atom - smallest unit of matter with same atomic #
Sub-atomic - electron, proton, neutron
Classification of Biological Organisms
Taxonomists - do the classification of organisms
All cells contain same organelle - the ribosome (site of protein
synthesis)
Woese - divisions of life based on similar RNA
RNA sequences change in different phyla/divisions
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Highest rank is Domains (made by comparing RNA sequences):
1. Bacteria - single celled life without nuclei
2. Archaea - prokaryotic group of single-celled organisms that
thrive in extreme environments
3. Eukarya - cells with nuclei (plants, animals, fungi, single celled
protists)
Kingdoms - traditional classification of organisms reflecting
patterns of relationships:
1. Monera - single celled, bacteria and archaea
2. Protista - unicellular eucaryotes
3. Plantae - plants, cellulosic cell walls
4. Fungi - molds, yeasts, mushrooms, decompose dead organisms
5. Animalia - animals, lack cellulosic cell walls
Lecture 3: Life’s Origins and Properties
The Unity of Life’s Processes
Unity of life:
1. Cell theory - all living things are composed of cells
cells arise from pre-existing cells, not by spontaneous generation (experiment by Redi and Pasteur)
all energy transformations of life occurs within cells
all living cells store hereditary information in DNA molecules
all cells have same basic structural plan - surrounded by cell membrane, cell nuclei
Universal properties of all cells:
1. store hereditary information in linear DNA molecular code
2. replicate hereditary information by templated polymerization (AT-GC)
3. transcribe hereditary information of DNA into an RNA intermediate (mRNA)
4. translate mRNA into protein (transcription and translation)
5. cells use proteins (enzymes) as catalysts for chemical reactions
6. life (cells) requires free energy - heterotrophy (oxidation of foods), phototrophy (capture of light), and
lithrotrophy (uses inorganic electron sources)
7. cells use same molecular building blocks for all biochemical reactions - carbs (sugars—> glu), 20 common
amino acids, 5 nucleotides
8. cells are enclosed by an amphiphatic lipoprotein cell membrane
2. Evolution - change in characteristics of a population over time
Darwin believed all species are related by descent from common ancestor
all species come from preexisting species that have changed through time
evolution happens via natural selection (survival of the fittest)
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