Midterm 2.docx

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DES 127A
Ann Savageau

Midterm 2 Review 13 multiple choice 10 true and false 3 short answers (with multiple parts) Class 8 Pros and cons of 3R’s C2C Critique of the 3R approach: The 3R’s operates within our current industrial system and so it cannot ultimately solve it, it only slows down the destruction (being less bad is no good) Reuse postpones disposal Natural Capital’s goal of radical resource productivity: • Reduce weight of product (dematerialization) • Reduce emissions, water, energy • Minimize number of production methods, operations • Minimize manufacturing waste • Design for durability, not obsolescence Dematerialization: “doing more with less” Reduction in the quantity of materials required to serve economic functions in society Levi’s Jeans reduce and reuse strategy: Wasteless jeans: made from 8 recycled plastic bottles (20% recycled plastic) Examples of products deliberately designed for reuse: Park bench, reusable shopping bags, maille mustard jars Aggie Reuse Store: • creative reuse of campus post consumer waste • help students to buy items at low cost • promotion of waste = food ethic • teach workshops on creative reuse Recycling: downcycling vs upcycling Recycling (downcycling): • Recover a product at the end of its useful life • Break it down into its constituent component • Re-incorporate it into a new product which is usually of lesser value and durability Upcycling: Re-incorporate it into a new product which has inherent value greater than or equal to the original product Most “lock in” environmental impacts occurs within the concept and detail design steps of the product development cycle Class 9: Sustainability and the built environment; LEED certification Statistics on construction and housing in the U.S. -buildings consume 60% of total materials flow -buildings are responsible for 33% of the waste stream -building renovation and demolition: 91% of construction and demolition debris Animal antecedents to human architecture; termite moundsContemporary ‘smart structures’ (based on termite mounds); indigenous architecture that is sustainable (passive cooling systems, underground architecture, local materials); contemporary living walls and passive heating/cooling; Termites: Master architects These termites have evolved a construction technique which extends the thermo-regulatory, digestive, respiratory and pulmonary systems found within all animals into the structures they inhabit. Mound:‘Respiratory organ for the nest’ Pisé, rammed earth David Easton: Pisé (a book)‘Pneumatically Impacted Stabilized Earth’ Eugene Tsui: nature’s design principles in architecture; Herman Miller headquarters designed by McDonough and Braungart -Nature's design principles: 1) Economize the use of materials 2) Maximize structural strength 3) Maximize the enclosed volume 4) Produce extremely high strength-to-weight ratios 5) Utilize stress and strain as a basis for structural efficiency 6) Create energy efficiency through form without external power 7) Create form that enhances air circulation 8) Use local materials for building 9) Use curvilinear forms that disperse and dissipate multi-directional forces 10) Integrate aerodynamic efficiency with structural form 11) Produce nothing that is toxic to the environment 12) Design structures that can be built by a single organism -Herman Miller (class 9/slide 71 look at the picture of McDonough Braungart design) “GreenHouse” office and manufacturing facility ‘Biophilia’: people’s love of nature What is LEED certification; why should architects be interested in becoming LEED certified? LEED = Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. LEED is a rating system for buildings, equivalent to a gas mileage rating for cars. Under LEED, buildings accumulate points for things such as saving energy, having accessible mass transit, and mitigating storm water runoff. Class 10 Statistics on construction and housing in the U.S: -buildings consume 60% of total materials flow -buildings are responsible for 33% of the waste stream -building renovation and demolition: 91% construction and demolition debris Embodied energy: all the energy needed to produce, sell, care for and dispose of a given product. It includes energy required to: • extract • process • package • transport • sell • install/build • maintain • recycle or dispose of Measured by: -MJ/kg: energy by mass -MJ/m2: energy by area -MJ/m3: energy by volume Examples of embodied energy in products discussed in class: Glazed brick: 7.2 MJ/kg Cotton fabric: 143.0 MJ/kg Paper (virgin white): 36.4 MJ/kg Life Cycle: all the stages of a product’s life from “cradle to grave” It includes: - Raw material extraction - Materials processing - Manufacture - Distribution - Use - Repair and maintenance - Disposal or recycling 3 phases of life cycle: 1. Upstream phase of a product: The initial phases through: - Raw material extraction - Materials processing - Manufacture 2. Use phase of a product - Use - Repair and maintenance 3. Downstream (end of life) phase of a product - Disposal or recycling (Transportation and distribution can occur during all three phases) Environmental impacts can occur at different stages of different products’ life cycle Example: Furniture: • Manufacture • Materials processing Electrical household appliances: • Use • Repair and maintenance Clothing: • Use Life cycle assessment (LCA): is a holistic and systematic method for analyzing the environmental and human health impacts of a product or process across its life cycle An LCA consist of four steps • Define the goal and scope • Analyze the inventory (LCI) • Assess the impacts (LCIA) • Interpret the results Life cycle inventory (LCI) is the accounting method used to track the input and output of material and energy flows Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is the process of developing indicators of potential human and ecological impacts from the LCI data Okala module 6 Environmental impact categories: • ecological damage • human health damage • resource depletion Example of each: Ecological damage: • Global warming • Ozone depletion • Water eutrophication • Acid rain • Habitat alterations • Ecotoxicity Human health damage: • photochemical smog and air pollutants • health damaging substance • carcinogens Resource depletion • fossil fuels • fresh water • Topsoil • Minerals Okala Module 9 Stages in products’ lifecycle • Raw material extraction • Material processing • Component processing • Assembly and packaging • Distribution and purchase • Installation and use • Maintenance and upgrading • Transport • Reuse, recycling, or compositing • Incineration or landfilling Okala Module 14 Best environmental assessment method: single-figure lifecycle assessment, multi-figure lifecycle assessment Pros and Cons of LCA Simple impact factor: Why is it important to designers How to apply it Class 11: Know examples of eco-design products in the powerpoint Papcorn(green), Golf tee(sugar), lamp What is ‘Product Stewardship’? Product stewardship is where environmental, health, and safety protection centers around the product itself, and everyone involved in the lifespan of the product is called upon to take up responsibility to reduce its environmental, health, and safety impacts. What is ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’? (EPR) extended producer responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of environmental costs associated with goods throughout their life cycles into the market price of the products. What is ‘Design for Disassembly’? (DfD) DfD is a building design process that allows for the easy recovery of products, parts and materials when a building is disassembled or renovated. How to DfD: a) Avoid toxic materials, chemicals b) Minimize fastener types c) Minimize the types of materials d) Avoid permanent fixing of different materials e) Avoid paint f) Identify material types with international recycling symbols Class 13 History of papermaking • 3000 B.C. “papyrus” paper: made from pith of papyrus plant. Used by ancient Egyptian, Greek, Roman • Tsai Lun, Chinese government official. Used mulberry bark, linen and hemp to make paper • Earliest paper in Europe: “rag” paper, made with recycled rag • 1700’s: French scientist Reaumur observed wasps make paper • Paper from wood pulp became widely
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