Fall 2013 Midterm 3 Study Guide
Cradle to Cradle:
Chapter 1: What is wrong with universal design solutions
What is ‘intergenerational tyranny’?
They design a product for the worst possible circumstance that reflects the assumption that nature is the enemy (pg 30)
Intergenerational tyranny: tyranny over future generations through the effects of our actions today (pg 43)
Chapter 2: Why is ‘eco-effectiveness’ better than ‘eco-efficiency’?
Eco-effectiveness: Working on the right things, on the right products and services and systems, instead of making the wrong things less bad
Eco-efficiency: Doing more with less
Chapter 3: What is the New Design Assignment? Be able to give specific examples
• Buildings that, like trees, are net energy exporters, produce more energy than they consume, accrue and store solar energy, and purify their
own wastewater and release it slowly in a purer form.
• Factory effluent water that is cleaner than the influent
• Products that, when their useful life is over, do not become useless waste, but can be tossed onto the ground to decompose and become food
for plants and animals, rebuilding soil; or, alternately, return to industrial cycles to supply high quality raw materials for new products.
• Billions, even trillions of dollars worth of materials accrued for human and natural purposes each year.
• A world of abundance, not one of limits, pollution, and waste.
Chapter 4: Earth’s biological metabolism (waste=food) vs. technical metabolism
Biological metabolism: biosphere, the cycles of nature, consumed by microorganisms in the soil and by other animals
Technical metabolism: a material or product that is designed to go back into the technical cycle, into the industrial cycle where it came from
Chapter 5: ‘devolution’ vs. ‘respect diversity’
Respect diversity: considering not only how a product is made but how it is to be used, and by whom. It may have many uses, and many users,
over time and space
Devolution: simplification on a mass scale and it is not limited to ecology. A tide of sameness is spreading from sea to sea, sweeping away
these cultural details too.
Chapter 6: 5 steps to Eco-effectiveness: Know each step, and examples of each step; Five Guiding Principles for designers
5 Steps to Eco-Effectiveness:
1. Get “free of” known culprits
2. Follow informed personal preferences
3. Creating a “passive positive” list
4. Activate the positive list
Five Guiding principles:
- Signal intention
- Innovate further
- Learning curve
- Intergenerational responsibility
Okala Module 4:
-characteristics of immature ecosystems vs. mature ecosystems (important)
- have a small number of competitive, quickly growing species
- use most of their available energy for growth
- large number of species with stable populations
- use most energy to cycle materials
1 - stabilize and live off of the earth’s net solar income
-definition of a sustainable economy (important )
use only the net available solar energy
sustainable economic growth is a contradiction
consume a fixed and non growing amount of physical resources
-What does the HEP-NEP (Human Exceptionist Paradigm-New Environmental Paradigm) questionnaire measure?
It measure the basic attitude toward the environment
Human control nature/Be one with nature ?
-Know what the Chemurgy Movement was and why it died out
A branch of applied chemistry concerned with preparing industrial products from agricultural raw materials
As agricultural raw materials are advancing, so did uses for petrochemical and non-renewable materials eventually won out in a number of
-Know the definitions of Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint
Carbon footprint: a measure of the impact of human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced,
measured in units of carbon dioxide
Ecological footprint: the land and water area required to support a given human population and its material standard indefinitely
Class #4: Four principles that form the basis of C to C (very important)
Use upcyclable materials
Use the solar income of energy
Elimination of toxic materials
Waste equals food
-What is biomimicry? What are 2 principles of nature used in biomimicry
A new discipline that studies nature’s models and then imitates or takes inspiration from nature’s designs and processes to solve human
2 principles: self assembly (sponge), power of shape (box fish)
Class #6: no material on the final exam
Class #7: no material on the final exam
Class #8: what is the difference between recycle, upcycle, downcycle?
Recycle: to recover a product at the end of its useful life, break it down into its constituent components, and re-incorporate it into new product
which has an inherent value equal to the original product
Upcycle: it keeps its value and even improves in value
Downcycle: degrade and lose value
Class #9: nothing on exam
-Definition of embodied energy and what it includes; how it is measured
All energy needed to produce, sell, care for and dispose a given product
It includes energy required to:
Extract, process, package, transport, sell, install/build, maintain, recycle
Measured by: energy by mass, by area, by volume
Class #11: Eco-design strategies: the Eco-design Strategy Wheel
Okala Module 10: Ecodesign Strategies: know the 7 strategies on the Ecodesign Strategy Wheel, and be familiar with the sub-strategies under
each of the 7 main headings; study the product case studies of each ecodesign strategy
Ecodesign Strategy Wheel
1. Design for innovation
• Rethink how to provide the benefit
• Integrate product to serve needs provided by associated products
2. Design with low-impact materials (transit chair)
• Use minimal materials
• Use reused or recycled materials
3. Design foe optimized production (hut ab)
2 • Minimize manufacturing waste
• Minimize energy in production
• Minimize number of components / materials
4. Design for efficient distribution (air box)
• Reduce product and/or packaging weight
• Use local production and assembly
5. Design for low-impact use (kango)
• Reduce energy inefficiencies
• Reduce water use inefficiencies
• Reduce material use inefficiencies
• Minimize emissions during use
• Integrate renewable energy sources
6. Design for optimized lifetime (iron pot)
• Design for maintenance and easy repair capabilities
• Design for upgrades/enhancements
• Build in user’s desire to care for product long term
• Create a timeless look or fashion
7. Design for optimized end-of-life (Eco-Range cosmetics packaging)
• Provide for reuse of components
• Provide ability to biodegrade
• Provide for safe disposal
Class #12: nothing on exam
Class #13: Graphic design and sustainability: Paper and Ink
-What is ‘Kraft paper’? Totally Chlorine Free Paper (TCF)?
Kraft paper: pulp produced from wood chips cooked with sulfur compounds (“kraft process”)
TCF: Paper made from 100% virgin fiber that is unbleached or is bleached without chlorine
-What is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)?
Certifies sustainably and environmentally responsible harvested virgin paper
-What is BPA’s relationship to printing inks?
BPA is used in thermal printing inks (a BPA plus acid sensitive dye, applied over the entire surface of special thermal paper)
Class #14: nothing on final exam
Class 15: nothing on final exam
Class 16: Sustainability in Plastics
-What material was early plastic made of? When did petroleum-based plastics appear?
20 Century, 1926: Vinyl (PVC, polyvinyl chloride)
-What are the names of two safer plastics, and two dangerous plastics; in what products are they found?
- #2 High density polyethylene (HDPE): milk, water, juice bottles; yogurt, margarine tubs, cereal box liners; grocery, trash and retail
- #4 Low Density polyethylene (LDPE): bread and frozen food bags and squeezable bottles
- #3 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): cling-wrapped meats, cheeses, and other foods sold in delicatessens
- #6 Polystyrene (PS): Foam insulation and hard applications (cups, toys)
-What is (Bisphenol A (BPA)? Where is it found? What health problems does it cause?
Carbon based synthetic compound
Found in #7 plastics “polycarbonates:” toys. Pacifiers, baby bottles, canned foods, water bottles, water pipes, food storage containers
Health problems: breast cancer, prostate disease & cancer, impaired immune function, brain damage, diabetes and obesity, early puberty, down