[MSC HST 68] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (29 pages long)

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6 Feb 2017
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UCLA
MSC HST 68
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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I. Play
A. Definition: free movement within a system of constraints
1. Constraints:
a) Rules (of a game)
b) Physics (for sports)
c) Laws (of society)
d) Genre (for literature or music)
e) The script (for a play)
f) Score (for music)
2. Constraints for musical style-taken as a collection, these constraints
structure a play field:
a) Cultural (how is society using music?)
b) Historical (what else is going on in the world?)
c) Economic (how is music-making financed?)
d) Technological (instruments, recording)
e) Educational (how do people learn about music?)
II. Beatles’ career
A. 1956-1959: the Quarrymen
1. Lennon & his friends
B. 1960-1962
1. Lennon, Harrison, McCartney
2. Became a bar band
3. Got a recording contract in ‘62 and had two hit singles
C. 1963: Beatlemania!
D. 1964-1966: international stars
1. Came to America
2. Had intense touring around most English speaking countries, recording, 2
films
E. 1966-1970: recording only
1. Stopped touring, only recorded, but did make television appearances
F. SUMMARY:
1. 50’s: teenagers having fun
2. Early 60’s: bar band, Hamburg, live performances in the UK
3. Mid 60’s: touring, recording, films
4. Late 60’s: studio recording only
When the external constraints change, play changes, causing
style to change
III. The Cascade of Musical Play
A. Composer: plays with the elements of music
1. Results in a musical work *only refer to pieces with words as “songs”*
B. Performer: plays with what the composer did, as well as the style
1. Results in a performance (live, or a recording)
C. Listener: plays with what the composer did, what the performer did, plus all sort
of other associations
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1. Results in an experience
2. Listening to music involves a mental play formed by the tension between:
a) Your memories of what you’ve already heard
b) Your expectations about what you will hear in the future
c) Your experience of what you hear from moment to moment
The Beatles were all three
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