MUS 11 Midterm 1 Notes

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University of California - San Diego
MUS 11
Robert Zelickman

MUS 11: The Evolution of Klezmer Music (Fall 2013) 3 Exams (4 week, 8 week, final week) Listening and identification, fill in the blank, short answer, true or false, no multiple choice Blue book needed for test (?) 9/26 Introduction 1740 – Present “Folk Music vs. Art Music. Art music is music with known composers and writers. Lets say there is a concert with tickets on sale and when you sit down and arrive, the artists perform and play for you. That is art music. The audience comes to the musicians to hear them play. We will hear songs that we know who wrote it. It was composed. Folk music can be music for which we don’t or may not know the composer, it could be passed down from generations. Compared to art music. You are at a wedding and you need music. You hire a band, and the musicians come to the wedding, the musicians come to the people. That is folk music. Both are for entertainment, but there is no other function than entertainment in art music. Art music = entertainment. Klezmer is not sacred, but secular music. However, it does have biblical and religious roots.” Biblical Origins 1400s – Reform of Cantorial Singing 1500-1600 Pictures (No Sound) We have pictures and drawings of Klezmer origins, no idea of what instruments 1740 – Hasidic Origin Klezmer – contraction of two Hebrew words (Kley-Zemer…vessel of song) 1. The instruments themselves are Klezmer or vessels 2. It is a type of music known as Klezmer 3. We are Klezmer. We are a vessel of song. No voice. It is instrumental. Functional, for dances or for weddings. Folk Music Art Music Ethnomusicologist – the study of music in a culture This culture is Eastern Europe Jewish folk music. Four aspects or tools used my ethnomusicologists… 1. A belief system (what does the culture believe in musically? Good or bad? Is it dangerous? Beautiful? When is appropriate? Examples: “I was asked to bring my Klezmer group to a TV station, to be interviewed by Orthodox Rabbi, and then the Rabbi saw the singer and said “she’s a female and its against the rules”. No females singing with men. A woman’s voice is dangerous in the Orthodox religion.” When and where is the music appropriate? When, where, and by whom is the music to be performed. Four types of music we study. Sacred or Secular Music that is only… or is it both? 1. Vocal Music 2. Instrumental Music…and when it can be played. 2. Social Organization  Badkhn (Badhan) – Wedding Entertainer (master of ceremony for weddings)  Klezmer – Instrumental Soloist, Ensemble Player playing secular music  Khazn (Cantor) – Sacred Singer (Old days, only males)  Meshoyrer – Choirboy or Cantor’s assistant  Folk Singer  Theater Performer (Yiddish Theater) What are the roles and status of the musician. How does the music function in society? 3. Material Culture of Music (Physical things of music we can touch) Instruments Used Printed Music Sound Recordings 4. Repertoire (Content of the Music) What is Jewish Music Folk Music Liturigcal Repertoire Music from the Jewish Enlightenment (Haskalah) Theater Eastern European Jewish Culture Don’t Generalize Groups: (Each used the music in a different way) 1. Poor – peasant (sing while work) 2. Middle Class (army, amateur orchestra) 3. Rich (Opera, symphony, travel) FOLK-ART MUSIC – musicians taking the folk music they heard and playing it on stage. Went out into the fields and collected folk music. (Bela Bartok) (10/1) Klezmer Biblical Roots of Jewish Music - 3 families of instruments: string, woodwind (divided into woodwinds or brasswinds), and percussion (divided into wood, metal, and skin) - String instruments: violin, viola, cello, base, harp - Harp is plucked or strum, Harp from ancient times, back then, they did not have bows, so they had to pluck or use a flectrum, strumming - Woodwinds: clarinets, flutes, reed attached to mouthpiece, bassoon and oboe - Percussion: tympany (skin and membrane drum) accompanies pitch, snare does not - Biblical Instruments  Halil – a flute like similar to Greek Aulos (big pipe)  Halil means to hollow out (name a flute – Halil, on the test)  Not sacred, but used for weddings and burials  Ladies are not allowed to play sacred music, only men  Ugab – smaller flute - Kinnor – David’s Harp - 10 stringed played with a plectrum - Like a harp or Lyre - Mentioned 42 times in bible - Never is smaller but has 12 strings - Tof – small hand drum played by women (tambourine) made out of foam, could be shaken - Parchment paper head and jingles - Music in biblical times, played big part in Jewish life, big part in ceremonies, King Saul established a center for training musicians, 12 tribes of Israel, tribe of Levi were assigned the duties of being musicians to perform music at the temple services, King Saul had the Psalms, which are melodic poems that were written, and what happened was David played on the harp melodies that went with the psalms, 150 psalms, no more created after 150, everything created after called piyyot, destruction in the years 583 BCE and 70 CE, destruction of the temple by the Romans. With that destruction, all the elders of the temple went into mourning and they decided to remove music from religious services. All they would have was the chanting of prayers, but instrumental music was banished. The musicians then left the church and went to the streets, began playing for non religious events…beginning of folk music - Shofar (horn) what are the functions Uses (Trumpet or Shofar) Call the People to Prayer Frighten the Enemy in Battle (Walls of Jericho) Ceremony (Rosh Hashana/Yom Kippur) Sound the Alarm Rally the People Announce a Victory Sounds Three short notes; Tru’ah Nine short notes: Sh”Varim (1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4,1) Long Sustained Pitch T’Kiah Ancient ways, Three ways of having prayers done: congregation/direct performance, interact/response performance, antiphonal performance (groups split) Cantillation (cantor means to sing) Oldest source of Jewish Music Mode of chanting or intonation used only in public recital of prayer Prayers chanted only, not recited Must adhere to traditional modes and tunes Mode = Method Prayers modes consist of combo of melodic patterns within a scale Torah reading modes Cantillation is melodic speech, not traditional singing For Prayer only, not for entertainment Reasons for Cantillation (on test) Used to help people memorize prayers Method of phrasing to clarify text Voice carries more with singing than speech Recognize cantillation of a prayer even if words not clearly heard Meshoyer Cantor’s assistant, took different paths Young Boys – learn singing from Cantor Became Cantors or great singers Boys formed choir – some took solos Jewish music does not have to do with who wrote it (non Jewish people), does not have to do with language (Lots of Yiddish songs that have nothing to do with Judaism)…what constitutes Jewish music? Purpose, If the purpose or function is directed towards Judaism, then it is Jewish. That purpose can change over many years. 10/3 – Roots of Eastern Europe Jewish Music (Three distinct places that Jewish people lived) - Diaspora – Dispursed (Outside Ancient Israel) - 3 Branches – Unity from Talmud (Book of Laws) 1. Ashkenazic – Eastern Europe 2. Oriental – Mediterranean and Near East 3. Sephardic – Judeo Spanish Jewish Thought - 3 schools of Thought 1. Haskala – western 2. Hassidism – Eastern and Southern 3. Misnagdim – Northern, more extreme, against dance and music, Pious Jews: Scholarship without music or dance Back of the reader there is a map of where we are studying Hassidism - Pious Ones - Founder – Israel Baal Shem Tov (The Master of the Good Name, 1700 – 1760) Abbr: Besht, lower class who went off into the mountains - Began in 1740 - Believed scholarship was not the key to salvation, and emotion was more important, religious exvocation over knowledge (through music and dance you could pray) - Thought that all were equal before God (Purity of Heart > Knowledge) - Appealed to the lower class - Nigun (Ni-goon) – tune, melody, created for the purpose of prayer, and Tov wanted to dance to them, wordless melodies, nonsense syllables interwoven because words have an end and got in the way, only for men, had a person who made up the melodies called a Tzadiz (religious leader responsible for making tunes) either made up or borrowed. - Soul could not soar without melody, music for communication with God, a sense of rising with music - Silence is better than speech, but music is better than silence - 20-25 years later, Hassidism splits into two factions - Split into two divisions: (because of how music was formed) 1. Besht – Poland, Southern Russia, Romania, and Hungary (the original) 2. HaBad – Hakhma (wisdom) + Binah (Insight) _ Da’at (knowledge) - White Russia and Lithuania - Founder – R. Shneor Zalman of Lyady (1740-1813) Two Divisions: Use of Music - Bestian School – Vigorous syncopated rhythmical figurations and fast tempos. Sung melodies expressed extreme joyous moods. Ectatic dance. Music mostly in major keys. - HaBad – recitative, sung in free, non metrical form. Lyric sentimental melodies of mystical characters, voicing yearning and revery. Music in Jewish modes. Hassidic Dances - Spiritual Dance – helps Hassid rise above mundane - Types of Dance 1. Circle (equality) 2. Pairs 3. Acrobatic Solo Dance (bottle on head) 4. Sher (sizzors for tailors) – square dance for couples 5. Broigez and sholem (Mad/Angry and Peace) 6. Wedding Dances Mitzvah Tanz (good de
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