SYG 2000 FINAL
▯The hierarchical differences in society.
3 Dimensions Social Stratification can take place:
1) Social Class economic division , most important
2) Status Prestige / Respect in their position
3) Power Power over others
Status Consistency / Crystallization – Same position in 3 dimensions
Status Inconsistency levels are different (drug dealer, prez, actors etc)
Income/ Income Inequality paychecks/ regular income of money, can
stratify in social class.
o Top 1% earned 23.5% of Country’s income
o Top 0.1% earned 6% of Country’s income
o Tope 20% earned over 50% of Country’s income
o Bottom 50% earned 5% of Country’s income
Why ▯Recent deindustrialization, technological advances and
o Wealth/ Wealth Inequality Assets – Debt. Can stratify in all 3 areas
From 19832009 top 5% of population had 80% gain.
Bottom 60% had a 7.5% decrease of wealth
o Benefits of Wealth:
Relieve stress, respect, not as concerned with work/leisure, can
make investments, material comforts, security, financial
Wealth can give high social class status and power
• 2009 Princeton: 41.7% admits had legacies, non
legacies only had 8% admitted.
▯lowest end of stratification
Capitalism works around large corporation and it’s how poverty works
1) They maximize profits (pay little, work with few employees)
2) Class competition – make sure things flourish.
Lobbying – How capitalism insures their rank
Absolute Poverty people in poverty by the established status, poverty
line, calculated by nutritiously adequate food plan
o 2010 family of one = $10,830
o 2010 family of four = $22,313
Relative Poverty – feel like you’re in poverty because those around you.
Race & Ethnicity
Race social definition based on real or presumed physical and biological
Ethnicity Social definition based on real or presumed cultural characteristics ▯Common misconceptions of the two: Hispanic/Mexicans, Chinese/Oriental,
▯Categories are socially defined.
History of Scientific Racism –
Darwinism – “Survival of the fittest”
Social Darwinism – Applied ^^ theory to racism.
o Ignores social reality of how people originally got here
o Manmade laws that oppress people
o Ignores social relations
Gregor Mendel – studied genetics
o Eugenics – idea you can improve a gene pool. (Nazis tried)
Phrenology – study skull structure to identify characteristics
o Ignored social relations
o Such as intelligence, Caucasian skulls were smarter
“Culture of poverty” – conditions in which poverty exists to keep people
there but argues they’re there because they created it.
Fluidity of Race
hypodescent rule/one drop rule – Fits same category of Eugenics
Trying to keep bloodline pure.
How Races Relate in Society
o Minority – race that is subordinate in regards to wealth, power and
o Majority race that is dominate in regards to wealth, power and
2010 Census Bureau – “In 2042 nonHispanic whites will be in minority
compared to all the other races combined”
o Entering a majority minority population
Racism in Action
Stereotypes – Generalizing behavior/characteristics to an entire group of
people. (Positive or negative)
Prejudice – Negative beliefs/attitudes about a group of people (internal)
Discrimination – Prejudice taken into action (external)
Intersectionality – all the characteristics matter, look at intersection of
race, gender, sexuality etc.
Sex and Gender
Sex – Biological distinction between men and women.
Gender – Social identities; behaviors, appearance, roles etc.
Male & Female
Intersexed – born with ambiguous penis
Transsexual – Born with one sex but you’re mind thinks differently
Continuum of Sex – people fall anywhere on the female male spectrum.
II. • Sexuality – The way people think and behave towards themselves and others as
• Sexual Orientation – who we are attracted to/desire
o Heterosexual – attracted to opposite sex
o Homosexual attracted to same sex
o Bisexual attracted to both sexes
o Asexual attracted to neither sex
o Pedophila attracted to minors/children
• Sexual Script How we behave sexually
o Men – Tool oriented ; dominant, aggressive, detached, physical
o Women –Play oriented ; Emotional, submissive, sensual, attached
• Social Constrains on Sex – rape, public sex, # of partners, religious, men over
women ▯consensual sex, assault, rape
• Rape Culture – culture condones rape by way we discuss/act on it
III. Sex and consumption
Bodies and acts
Porn & erotica
IV. Sexual Harassment
Quid Pro Quo – I do something for you, you fuck me
Hostile Work Enviroment – work environment isn’t good – lots of sexual
energy – whistling, dirty talk etc.
V. Sexual Deviance
Degree of consent
o –Nature of persons or objects
o Nature of actions or body part
Hegemonic Masculinity – dominant idea what masculinity is
Emphasized Femininity – submissive and in service to ^^ man
DualEarner families –
Supermom – brings money, does everything and second shift
Second shift – women does more cooking/cleaning on top of work
o Hidden Curriculum – skills and socialization taught subtly in school in
addition to academics
Gender and Consumption
Ads keep us at these prerequisite stereotypes of gender roles.. Women
always cleaning etc.
Transgender – born male, OK with being a male but doesn’t feel
comfortable with male roles ▯cross dressing is common Family
Traditional family – nuclear family, breadwinner father
Nuclear family – 2 parents, children ( 2+ kids, caretaker mother)
Not majority form
1950’s original ‘traditional’ family originated
Economic boom ; allowed single learning families to live)
Army men came back ▯lots of sex ▯baby boom
TVs came available for others and the tv programs didn’t alternate their
shows for everyone so it depicted rich families and high class
Family – group of people related by descent marriage or adoption
Marriage – legal union between 2 people
Monogamy – one partner, spouse
Polygamy – 2+ partners
• Polgymy – multiple wives
• Polyandy – multiple husbands
• Cenogamy – multiple everything
We meet someone to form intimate relationships; close personal relationship
Restrictions 3 levels of constraints
1) personal preference/taste
2) logistical (distance, language)
3) historical/ legal
Endogamy – partnering inside your group
Exogamy – outside of your group
passionate – sudden ,intense, based on sexual attraction, low likelihood for
Compasionate – slower, based on knowing a person, support, high
likelyhoof of sustainability
1950s – tied passionate/romantic love to consumption… You have to spend
to show you care.. LOL
Family Conflict models
Family starts too early and there is a lack of socialization
Public services shrinking so there’s more responsibility on the
family, social security is a mess – such as taking care of
grandparents is too much work.
o Culture Tensions
Individualism, when in a family it’s a group effort but conflict
arises from doing you own thing.
o Conflict of interest Inside home people are more egalitarian (equality of sexes) / social
structures still unequal when women aren’t appreciated for their
housework and mom duties.
Social scripts weakening families not sure how to be families.
Increasing amount of new types of family
Married couples 19602010 ▯72% 51%
Nuclear Families 19502010 ▯43% 20%
Andrew Cherlin “deinstitutionalization of marriages from 5 factors”
Children outside of marriage