TXMI 4250 Quiz: TXMI 4250 QUIZ 4 NOTES pt. 2

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Textiles, Merchandising and Interiors
TXMI 4250

TXMI 4250 QUIZ 4 NOTES Idea of automation is to allow machines to communicate with each other to reduce errors and streamline the process • More consistent • May get rid of human need-dec. jobs Once the necessary equipment has been chosen and the sequence of operations established, it is necessary to determine the best way to flow the production through the factory • Choosing the most efficient system for production can mean the difference between profit or loss Old English proverb-“Necessity is the Mother of Invention” Evolution of production systems: • When garments were made in homes-entire process was handled by one person o Typically used 301 lockstitch machine-make through system • Line systems were developed to improve productivity • Bundling systems further improved productivity by allowing specialization in particular operations • UPS is an automated compilation of the previous systems • Modular systems are designed to decrease in process inventory and increase productivity and quality o Lean manufacturing, QR, JIT, TQM 5 categories of apparel production systems: 1. Make through 2. Line-straight, progressive 3. Bundle 4. UPS 5. Modular System chosen is determined by management philosophy-“maximize productivity or maximize flexibility Difficult to change systems once one is established Make through system- the original method of manufacturing in which the operator works right through one garment, except for specific machines • Tailor or seamstress • May undertake own over-locking • Make through is for high fashion garments, samples, and low volume production Advantages: • Highly flexible for fashion changes • Little organization required • Required little supervision • Job satisfaction • Quick throughput time • Low work in progress • Absenteeism is less of a problem Disadvantages: • Required very skilled and experienced operators and lots of training • Inefficient workers slow process • Little use of work aids • Productivity is low due to lack of specialization • Excessive costs • Low operator performance due to variety of operations handled individually Straight Line System-this system handles individual garments with a consecutive sequence on operations laid out either side of a conveyor, or more usually a central fixed table without a conveyor • Fixed cycle time-operations are broken down to fit as nearly as possible • Conveyor speed is adjusted to set the cycle time Advantages: • Rapid through put time • Work in process is low and well controlled • Less space per operator • System runs itself and supervisor does not have to take work from each operator • Bundling is not necessary • Team work promotes job satisfaction Disadvantages: • Inflexible-style changed required the line to be reorganized • Labor utilization is inherently poor-belt speed must be adjusted to rate of work of the slowest operator • Team work is essential-may inc. waiting time • Absentees and machine breakdown cause problems • Quality is difficult to control • Loss of individual piece work incentives Synchronized Flow (progressive line system)-instead of one operation feeding one operation, this system has one operation feeding multiple operations. • Material handling between workstations is often achieved through using simple chutes Advantages: • Highly specialized operations • Minimum handling • Reduce bottlenecks • Costing is simple • Pre-planned output Disadvantages: • Inflexible • Required stand by operators and machinery • Must be highly supervised • Absenteeism may have serious effect on production • Work in progress is slightly greater Mainline assembly with off line sets- a development of progressive bundle system aimed to reduce work in process through put out time • Sub assembly stages are off-line and proceed simultaneously • Mainly for front and back, garment assembly, collar setting, and final assembly • Service operator-required to reassemble from different stages o Bundle person Advantages- • Shorter throughput time • Reduce work in progress Disadvantages • Service operator required to reassemble the bundles Conventional bundle unit- typical example of a sectional system. Operator works on one section of the garment • Developed from make through system • Tied bundle-method of moving work from operation to operation • Bundle contains only a single part of the garment-such as the sleeve, collar, cuff, etc • Divides not only the work, but also the garment Advantages • Operators can be specialized • Can use piece work incentive Disadvantages • Higher work in process • Longer through put time • System does not run smoothly • Difficult to change the factory lay-out • Handling and internal transportation is high • Difficult to control WIP Progressive Bundling System- this is a modification of the conventional bundle systems. All garment parts are included in the bundle and operations are laid out logically according to the sequence required to make the garment • Product lay out-operations are laid out in the logical sequence required to make product • work in process is sufficient to provide a buffer to balance each operations • line balancing should be achieved by the supervisor to ensure good production advantages • all parts of one garment are in one bundle • highly specialized operations • simple training • simple costing • quality controlled • maximum opportunity for piece work incentive • absenteeism can be covered without disrupting the line • operators can clear repairs without disrupting the line disadvantages: • high level of work in process • high level of handling • quality problems in one operation may go undetected allowing defective garments to be made • priority work may require special attention • well trained, high caliber supervisors are required to maintain system Unit Production System (UPS) -used for many years, a major advance was made in 1983 when computers were introduced to plan, control, and direct the flow of work through the system • single garment, not bundle • garment components a
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