Political Science 140: Course Guide
Terms (concepts, parties, etc) [First Half]
• Dirigisme (75)
o An economic system where the state exerts a strong directive influence
over investment. It designates a capitalist economy with a strong directive,
as opposed to a merely regulatory, role for the state.
• Cohabitation (66, 67)
o Occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France's system, when the
President is from a different political party than the majority of the
members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the
president to name a prime minister that will be acceptable to the majority
party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality
of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister
who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature.
o In cohabitation, Prime Minister takes the leading role
• European Union (172, 187, 188)
o The European Union (EU) was founded in 1948 in the aftermath of World
War Two to promote stability and economic cooperation between member
states. Comprised of 28 European countries, the EU has established
common institutions - the Council (which represents national
governments), the European Parliament (which represents the people), and
the European Commission (an independent body that represents the
collective European interest) – to democratically legislate specific matters
of joint interest to participating countries at a European level
• Electoral thresholds and small parties (124, 154, 159, 179)
o Thresholds are the minimum share of the vote which a political party
requires to secure any representation
Party list Proportional Representation
o The effect of an electoral threshold is to deny representation to small
parties or to force them into coalitions, with the presumption of rendering
the election system more stable by keeping out radical factions.
• Names of Prime Ministers and Presidents of Britain, Germany, France
o Britain: David Cameron (C)
o Germany: Chancellor -Angela Merkel (CDU)
President - Joachim Gauck (Independent)
o France: Prime Minister - Jean-MarcAyrault (Socialist Party)
President - François Hollande (Socialist Party)
• Iron Law of Oligarchy (24, 27)
o All organizations tend toward oligarchy (rule by the few) rather than
o “ Who says organization says oligarchy”
o Forces that push (political) organizations to oligarchy The need for specialization and differentiation that exists in all
large, modern organizations
Most ordinary members do not have the time or resources to hold
their leaders accountable and that they often crave strong
Parties foster leaders who live “off” politics rather than “for”
politics. They exploit their leadership positions to advance their
own ambitions for wealth and power, often to the detriment of their
• Judicial Review (42, 144)
o The system of high courts ruling on challenges that other units of
government have exceeded there powers allocated to them by the
o None in Britain
• Name ideologically and electorally significant parties and where they would
fall on a Left-Right continuum in Britain, Germany, France
o Britain: Left – Labour Party (Minority)
Center – Liberal Democrats (Coalition w/ Majority) (lean left)
Right – Conservative Party (Majority)
o Germany: Left – Social Democratic Party (Minority)
The Left/Greens (Far Left)
Right - Christian Democratic Union (Majority)
Free Democratic Party (Far Right)
o France: Left - Socialist Party (Majority)
Right - Union for a Popular Movement (Minority)
• German Länder (states) (144, 148)
o 16 States: 10 in the West, 6 in the East (created after unification)
o Regional economic centers dispersed through states
o Mass media focused around regional markets
o Different states are different culturally and politically
Typically along east-west
• Minimum winning coalition
o Acoalition that tends to be as small as possible, as long as it is can secure
a parliamentary majority.
o If two small parties each receive a quarter of the vote they will form a
coalition that gives them the majority over forming with a larger party that
received a less than half the vote because parties will prefer the largest
relative size within the coalition.
• Grand Coalition (160)
o Formed by the two leading parties, usually from the left and the right,
which together command a substantial majority of seats
o Example: The first Merkel government was a grand coalition between the
centre-right Christian Democrats/Christian Social Union and the centre-
left Social Democrats, as the CDU/CSU’s more obvious coalition partner
– the Free Democrats – did not have enough seats to give a centre-right
coalition a majority • Bureaucracy/civil service
o Abody of nonelected government officials, administer laws and deliver
o Most important group, are the higher civil servants (smallest group) who
advise ministers and oversee work of their departments.
o Relationship between the Bureaucracy and Legislatures is critical
• Duverger’s Law
o When there is a systematic relationship between electoral systems and
party systems, so that plurality single-member district election systems
tend to create two-party systems in the legislature, while proportional
representation electoral systems generate multiparty systems.
Mechanical effect: The way that different electoral systems convert
votes into seats. In single-member district systems, parties get no
representation unless they finish first in at least one district.
Therefore, smaller parties that run second, third or fourth across
many districts receive little or no representation.
Psychological effect: Both voters and candidates anticipate this
mechanical effect. Therefore voters do not throw their support
behind hopeless parties and candidates. Instead they support the
second or third best option in order to keep a party they strongly
dislike from winning.Also knowing this makes minor party
candidates reluctant to run
• Plurality vs. majority
o Refers to the largest number of votes to be received by any candidate (or
any proposal in a referendum). It is contrasted with an absolute majority,
or simple majority, which is more than half of the votes.
o In other words, in an election contested by more than two candidates,
plurality occurs when one candidate receives the most votes but not
necessarily more than half of the votes, while in a majority election a
candidate wins if they receive over half of the votes. When no candidate
receives a majority in the first round of voting, a two-round system or
ranked voting system can be used to choose a winner.
• InterestArticulation (pluralist, neo-corporatist, controlled)
Multiple groups may represent a single societal interest
Group membership is voluntary and limited
Groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure
There is a clear separation between interest groups and the
Asingle peak association normally represents each societal interest
Membership in the peak association is often compulsory and
Peak association are centrally organized and direct the actions of
their members Groups are often systematically involved in making and
There is a single group for each social sector
Membership is often compulsory
Each group is normally hierarchically organized
Groups are controlled by the government or its agents in order to
mobilize support for government policy
• Parliamentary democracy vs. presidential democracy
o Presidential democracy
President is directly elected and both head of state and government
Can lead to divided government if legislature and executive parties
Harder to pass legislation than in a parliamentary democracy
o Parliamentary democracy
Prime Minister is not directly elected and is not the head of state
Lacks separation of powers
No divided government; PM head of majority; can be removed if
loses confidence of majority (vote of no confidence)
• 4 vs. 5 Republic (in French politics) (91)
o 4 THRepublic
Had to weak of an executive branch, couldn’t cope with
One party couldn’t maintain majority. Governments fell too
regularly: 24 governments in 12 years.
o 5 Republic
Stronger executive, President plays more prominent role in
combination with Prime Minister
Moved toward checks and balances as opposed to parliamentary
• Bundesrat vs. Senate vs. House of Lords
o All Upper houses are not directly elected.Are less powerful than the lower
houses in their legislatures. Bundesrat represents the states interest, HOL
more for formal purposes than actual legislation, Senate is closest to a
lower house, very similar to HOL, lacks prominence.
• Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat (28)
o Bourgeoisie are the industrial middle class, they are the bearers of
democracy. They dominate the proletariat, lower class, and exploit them to
make them work on their means of production. Have no worth but the
value of their labor.
• The classic Left vs. classic Right (Keynesianism and monetarism)
o Classic left is liberal/socialist ideology. Big government… Welfare state.
Believe in Keynesian economics and redistributing to the poor
o Classic right is conservative ideology. Limited government… Less taxes Believe in monetarism economics and controlling the amount of
money in circulation and keeping inflation down
• Unitary state (Devolution of Power) vs. federal state (42)
o Unitary state is one country that draws all its power from one supreme
centralized government. Government is also united along one front
o Federal State is a union of self governing countries within a country
o Devolution of powers is the granting of powers from the central
government to government at a regional, local, or state level.
• Head of state vs. head of government
o The Head of government is the holder of the highest position in the
executive branch. Such as a President or Prime Minister
o The Head of State is the holder of the highest position, acts as the public
representative of the country. Such as the Queen of England or POTUS
• First ballot vs. second ballot in elections to the Bundestag
o First part of the ballot citizens vote for a candidate to represent their
o Second part of the ballot citizen’s vote for a political party. Votes are
added nationwide and the percent of the popular vote each party receives
is the percent of seats they get in the Bundestag
o Half the members are district representatives, half are party representatives
Seats in the party half are determined by the popular vote
percentages in the second ballot
• Three paths of development outlined by Barrington Moore
• Role of judiciary in Britain, Germany, France
o Britain: Very weak cannot overturn laws, has no judicial review. Only
functions is as criminal/trial courts
o Germany: Use judicial review; Strong judiciary system; Similar to USA
o France: Has some form of judicial review; in the middle strength wise
overturn laws, just less frequently
• Industrialization (13-14, 25-26, 88-91, 126)
o Period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from
an agrarian society into an industrial one.
• Ruling political parties/coalitions in each of Britain, France, Germany,
o Britain: Conservative/Liberal Democrats
o France: Socialist Party/Miscellaneous Left/Citizen and Republican
Movement/Radical Party of Left
o Germany: Christian Democrat Union/Christian Socialist Union/Free
• Proportional representation (153)
o In multimember districts the number of seats won by a party or group of
candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received.
If 30% of voters support a particular party then roughly 30% of
seats will be won by that party
o Voting for political party; Parties offer lists of candidates for districts Closed list PR: elected representatives drawn from the top of the
list, in declining order; voters have no say about their candidates
Open list PR: Voters can give preference votes to individual
candidates, this determines which candidate represents the district
o Minimum vote threshold needs to be reached for the party to be
represented in legislature (usually 5%)
• First past the post
o Avoting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins
o Simple majority in single member districts (plurality)
o Used in U.K. with two round voting system (majority runoff: second
• Third Reich (Nazi) (134)
o The Nazi’s used their domination of the parliament to enact legislation
granting Hitler dictatorial powers, who than created the authoritarian state
know as Third Reich
o Pursued extremist politics, social and political parties that opposed Hitler
o Infrastructure built for wartime economy, military grew (violated Treaty of
o Cause of World War 2, lost after Surrender in May 1945
• Subsistence agriculture (20)
o Self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough
food to feed themselves and their families.
o Land owning class keeps surplus
• Names of and powers of the legislative bodies in Britain, Germany and
France (Lower House always more powerful)
o Britain: Parliament
Upper House: House of Lords (Appointed)
Bills can be introduced in the House of Lords. It scrutinizes
Bills that have been approved by the House of Commons. It
regularly reviews and amends Bills from the Commons.
While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, it can
delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider its
decisions. In this capacity, the Lords act as a constitutional
safeguard that is independent from the electoral process.
Lower House: House of Commons (Elected)
All legislation concerning taxation or supply occurs in the
HOC. The supremacy of the Commons in legislative
matters is assured by the ParliamentActs, under which
certain types of bills may be presented for the RoyalAssent
without the consent of the House of Lords.
o France: Parliament
Upper House: The Senate (Appointed)
May propose bills, review and amend bills. Rarely
administration can award passing power for legislation to NAif stalemate between the two houses.Also monitor the
administration's actions by publishing many reports each
year on various topics.
Lower House: The NationalAssembly (Elected)
Propose and amend bills, more prominent house. Have the
right for a Vote of Censure (vote of no confidence) to
overthrow Prime minister and other ministers.
o Germany: Parliament
Upper House: Bundesrat (Appointed by the States)
Represents the states’interests. Evaluates legislation,
debates government policy, shares information between
federal and state governments.
Lower House: Bundestag (Elected)
Enact legislation; all federal laws must receive its approval.
However the executive branch initiates most legislation.
Elects the Federal Chancellor who is head of the Executive
• Welfare state (and Keynesianism)
o Government should pump money into the economy in times of recession
and should take money out in economic growth (taxes)
o Government should redistribute money through welfare program: help the
• Xenophobia (140)
o Deep-rooted, irrational hatred towards foreigners
• Name significant parties that do not fall on classic L-R spectrum, but rather
on post-modern-traditional continuum. (72, 185)
o Britain: Greens (PM) British National Party (T)
o France: Greens (PM) National Front (T)
o Germany: Greens (PM)Alternative for Germany Republikaner (T)
• Median Voter result
o Parties will moderate their policies so as to try to win support of the
median voter (midpoint of political spectrum).
o In two party systems, party needs to win a majority so targeting the
“center” of electorate is critical
• Features of democracy
o Elected representative
In democracy representatives elected by the people make laws and
frame policies of the government.
All adult citizens have the right to participate (vote) in .the
elections. Elections should be free and fair and must be held at
o Civil liberties
An important characteristic of democracy is that it grants top civil
liberties to the citizens. They enjoy freedoms of speech, expression, and information. Citizens have a right to form, join or
quit an association. It includes the right to form political party.
o Rule of law
Another characteristic of democracy is that it ensures rule of law.
Law is supreme and all the citizens are equal in the eyes of law. No
one is above law.
o Independent judiciary
Independence of Judiciary is an essential characteristic of
democracy. Judiciary must be free from any control of the
executive or the legislature. Judges must be honest and should
deliver justice impartially.
o Organized opposition party
The opposition party keeps an eye on the policies and working of
the government. By criticizing the wrong policies of the
government, it forces the government to make laws and frame
policies for the welfare of the people. It prevents the government
from being dictatorial.
• Single-member district vs. multi-member district
o Single member districts have one representative elected from the district,
usually by a plurality or a runoff vote.
o Multi member districts have multiple representative elected from the
district, are usually larger than SMP and use a PR voting system
• Elites vs. masses
o Elites: a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of
wealth or political power
o Masses: are exploited and have virtually no power in society
• Multiculturalism vs. assimilation
o When immigrants assimilate they adopt the culture of the country they are
residing in. When immigrants don’t do this they keep their culture and co-
exist with the dominant culture in the country they have moved to, which
leads to multiculturalism.
Terms (concepts, parties, etc) [Second Half]
• Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
o Founded in 1921; in competition with the Nationalist Party
o Unlikely contenders for power, eventual victory owed to historic
opportunities in the 1930s and 1940s
Communists were able to exploit these opportunities the best
Mao emerged as leader in the mid 1930s and consolidated power
in the early 1940s o Organized around a hierarchy of party congresses and committees
extending from the top of the system down to the grassroots.
o Innerparty rules for decision making are based on the Leninist principle
of democratic centralism
Democratic centralism: Centralized consultation throughout the
party, allowed to have opposing opinion not allowed to promote it
The formation of opposing factions not tolerated
o Dominating party of the People's Republic of China since the state's
creation. Dominates Chinese government and political life. Through the
nomenklatura system, the CCP is able to control every government post
and every decision the government makes.
o System of government characterized by selfrule by the people. Frequent
and fair elections of rulers, open to all citizens of voting age. Principles
such as majority rule key.
• Postmaterialist values
o An emphasis of values that go beyond material ideas and products. While
materialist values emphasize survival materials such as food, shelter,
income, and clothing, postmaterialist values include selfexpression,
freedoms, participation in politics, and higher quality of life
o Form of government centered on a deity and an organized religion.
Officials rule through divine right and use their deity's word to guide their
policies. Iran is today's sole theocracy.
• Economic liberalization
o Policy that lessens or removes a state's government's control of the
economy and markets. Normally includes free markets, legalization of
private business and enterprise, and introduction of foreign investment
into the economy
o Largest country in the world in terms of land. Rich in coal, oil, and other
natural resources. Independent since 1991. Until that time was the central
republic of the Soviet Union.
• National People’s Congress o People's Republic of China's legislative body. Consists of nearly 3,000
members. "Elected" by provincial congresses, but is just a part of the
government's hierarchy. Controlled by CCP through nomenklatura system.
Lacks any real power, as most decisions are made in the higherup
committees of the government and CCP.
• Civil society
o The realm of activity that falls between the state and the economy
• Resource Curse (Rentier Thesis)
o Phenomenon seen over course of history that shows that, historically,
countries that sit on massive amounts of natural resources have tended to
be more authoritarian. Economically, these states tend to have small
growth rates with large rich/poor gaps. Examples: Russia, Iran
o In Marxist ideology, bourgeoisie refers to the middle class "haves" who
control the means of production and oppress the "have nots" of society. In
Maoist doctrine, Bourgeoisie took on a new meaning: anything Western,
antiCommunist, antirevolution, or antiChina.
o A body of nonelected government officials, administer laws and deliver
o Most important group, are the higher civil servants (smallest group) who
advise ministers and oversee work of their departments.
o Relationship between the Bureaucracy and Legislatures is critical
o Organized group of experts who are unelected but play a crucial role in
most governments. Role depends on the country. In western democracies
such as Britain or France, the bureaucracy drafts most legislation as well
as administering and enforcing it. In governments such as China or Iran,
bureaucracy is more of a pawn of the party and government.
• Command economy
o Economic policy in which state government controls all aspects of the
economy. Markets are controlled and the state controls supply and
demand. No foreign investment is allowed, industry is controlled by the
state, and private enterprise is banned. Quotas for most goods are set and
agriculture is collectivized.
• Great Leap Forward o Chinese economic movement led by Mao from 19581961. Agriculture
was collectivized and Mao pressed for hyperrapid industrialization.
Collectivization was incredibly inefficient, resulting in famine, death of
thousands, and economic collapse. Reds and Mao took a step back.
o In Marxist ideology, proletariat was the working class, exploited by the
Bourgeoisie (who controlled the means of production). Destined to hold a
• Import substitution Industrialization
o Strategy of industrialization that emphasized domestic production over
foreign involvement. All foreign investment is blocked and industry is
owned by the state.
o A system of ideas, values, and beliefs that form the basis of a economic or
political theory/policy. Example: communism in China.
• Path dependency
o Tendency of a state or society's history to impact how it moves forward
(and increases its likelihood to repeat actions of the past).
o Main means by which CCP maintains control over all government and
party offices in China. Every office of even moderate importance is
managed by a party committee
o Hundreds of thousands of families on one farm, called a commune. Crops
are bundled together. Quotas are set for that farm's production, but they
were never met. Inefficiencies in system led to starvation of millions of
Chinese citizens during Great Leap Forward (19581961).
• Soviet Union
o Communist state in Eastern Europe from 19221991. Union of most
eastern European republics, with Russia being chief state.
o The international integration of economies, ideas, products, cultures, and
businesses due in large part to technology. • Patron/client relationship
o In politics, refers to a government (patron) providing a good or service
(food, legislation, job, etc) to a constituent/constituency (patron) in
exchange for voting loyalty.
• Subsistence agriculture
o A means of living typical of premodernized or preindustrialized
societies. Families lived as isolated units, simply trying to produce enough
food (from farming) to survive. Any surplus went to the ruling class; it
could not be sold for profit. Population of such societies rose or fell to
meet food supply.
• Cultural Revolution
o 19661971 social and political movement led by Mao and the "reds" of the
CCP. After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, the "experts" had taken
the lead. The Cultural Revolution was Mao's way of resolidifying the
power of the reds and himself. The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to
purge society and the party of anything "bourgeoisie", expert, or counter
revolutionary. He carried out these goals by indoctrinating children by
controlling the education system, establishing Red Guards, and creating
the "Cult of Mao."
• People’s Liberation Army
o Armed services branch of the CCP. De facto military of China. Defeated
the nationalists and, under Mao, establish the People's Republic of China
o Philosophy in China based on the teachings of Confucius. Emphasizes
order, duty, obedience, and respect for authority and elders. Still impacts
Chinese society today.
• Long March
o 1934 retreat of the Red Army (now the People's Liberation Army) at the
hands of the Chinese nationalists. Thousands of miles long, with
thousands of Communists perishing over the course of the march.
However, during the Long March, Mao rose to prominence in the CCP and
the Communists won respect and prestige across China. Ultimately helped
them win power after WWII.
• SOE (stateowned enterprise) o Business created by a government that partakes in commercial enterprises
on the govt's behalf.
• TVE (town and village enterprise)
o Market oriented public enterprise under the purview of loyal government
based in townships and villages in China
• Leninist Vanguard Party
o Vanguard refers to the more classconscious of the Proletariat. Marx
predicted they would form organizations, hold meetings, etc. and spread
the consciousness to lessknowledgeable members to help their revolution.
o Part of Gorbachev's 1985 reform process literally "openness," called for
societal and political openness in the Soviet Union
• Dual Transition under Yeltsin
o More democratic, but open economy put wealth in the hands of groups of
oligarchs and led to massive corruption and plummeted growth.
• Great Purges under Stalin
o Any political rivals or antiRevolutionary/ anticommunist Soviet citizens
were either killed immediately or sent to a labor camp. Ultimately, 812
million Soviet citizens died at the hand of Stalin.
• Economic protectionism
o Economic system in which government controls all aspects of the market.
Supply and demand is controlled, production is planned, industry is owned
by the state, and all private enterprise is banned by the government.
Quotas are usually set for all goods, and agriculture is often collectivized.
o A faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
(RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second
Party Congress in 1903
Ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
o The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution
phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union
• Perestroika o Means "restructuring," refers to Gorbachev's economic reforms in 1985
that called for a more mixed economy. While the state still owned most
industry, private business were legalized to fill in some of the gaps from
the inefficient statecontrolled industry.
o A term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a government
of a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a Community
• Soviet “Era of stagnation”
o Began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (19641982) and continued
under Yuri Andropov (19821984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984
1985). This period ended when Mikhail Gorbachev
Prolonged period of slow economic growth under Bezhnev
As vast as the state’s powers were their use was frustrated by
bureaucratic immobilism (deepseated resistance to political)
Overcentralization undermined the leaders’ actual power to enact
significant policy change or even recognize when significant
policy change was needed
The political system of the soviet union grew topheavy,
unresponsive and corrupt
Regime unable to modernize the economy or improve living
standards for the population
o The lack of reform, or the high expenditures on defense, led to stagnation.
o The majority of scholars set the starting year for economic stagnation
either at 1973 or 1975, although some claim that it began as early as the
o Issue of Putin's centralization the smaller ethnic areas surrounding Russia
were absorbed into larger surrounding, sought for independence but only
Chechnya fought back with war ended but continued with guerilla
warfare and once Islam took over continued to terrorism
• United Russia o Current ruling centrist party in Russia. It is the largest party in the country,
currently holding 238 (or 52.89%) of the 450 seats in the State Duma
o The party was founded in December 2001 through a merger of the Unity
and FatherlandAll Russia parties.
o Ideologically, it selfidentifies as a "Russian conservative" party, and it
supports the policies of the current presidential administration.
o The most popular party in the country, ahead of the Communist Party (at
• Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
o A centre right, conservative, political party and the largest party in Japan.
o The LDP has been in power since 1955, except for a brief 11month period
between 1993 and 1994, and from 2009 to 2012.
o In the 2012 election it regained control of government. It holds 295 seats
in the lower house and 115 seats in the upper house.
• Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)
o A social liberal (Centreleft) political party in Japan founded in 1998 by
the merger of several smaller parties.
o It is the secondlargest party in the House of Representatives and the
House of Councilors
o It constitutes the primary opposition to the longdominant Liberal
o After the 2009 election, the DPJ became the ruling party in the House of
Representatives, defeating the longdominant Liberal Democratic Party
During its time in office, the DPJ was beset by internal conflicts
and struggled to implement many of its proposed policies, an
outcome described by political scientists as the "paradox of
political change without policy change
Legislative productivity under the DPJ was particularly low, falling
to levels unprecedented in recent Japanese history according to
• Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
o A Mexican political party that held power in the country for 71 years. o PRI is not considered a socialist party in the traditional sense; its modern
policies being characterized as centrist.
o Voted out of power for the first time in 2000
• National Action Party (PAN)
o One of the three main political parties in Mexico. Center right, Christian
o Since 2000 and until 2012 the President of Mexico had been a member of
this party; both houses have PAN pluralities, but the party does not have a
majority in either house of the Congress.
• Indian National Congress (INC)
o One of the two major political parties in India
o It is the largest and one of the oldest democratically operating political
parties in the world.
o The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered centreleft wing
in the Indian political spectrum
o Became a pivotal participant in the Indian Independence Movement, with
— over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its
struggle against British colonial rule in India.
o After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political
party, led by the NehruGandhi family for the most part; major challenges
for party leadership have only recently formed
o In the 2009 general elections, the Congress emerged as the single largest
party in the Lok Sabha, with 206 of its candidates getting elected to the
543member house. Consequently it, as a member of a coalition of
political organizations called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), was
able to gain a majority and form the government.
• Scheduled castes
o The basic social units that still govern marriages, social network, food
taboos, and rituals un India
o In the past, caste regulated the choice of occupation as well, which was
typically castespecific and hereditary at the same time.
o Changed rapidly because of modernization, legislation, and urbanization o Government quota system has opened up top jobs that once were the
prerogative of the upper castes
o 2000 jaits in India traditionally divided into four categories varnas
The Brahmins: preists
The Kshatriyas: rulers, fighters, landowners
The Vaisyas: Mercantile
The Sudras: Service groups, agriculturists and artisans
• Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)
o One of the two major parties in the Indian political system
o Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of
representation in parliament and in the various state assemblies.
o Is official ideology and central philosophy to be the rightwing Hindu
nationalist "integral humanism", based upon a 1965 book by Deendayal
o The BJP led the national government along with a coalition of parties of
the NDA from 1998 to 2004, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Prime Minister,
thus making it the first nonCongress government to last a full term in
o Northwest region of Indian subcontinent, predominantly Muslim, fought
for independence on union with Pakistan
o Now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's
Republic of China.
• Lok Sabha
o The lower house of the Parliament of India (House of the People)
o Consists of 545 members; 542 are directly elected and two are nominated
by the president of India as representatives of the AngloIndian
o Elections of the members take place on the basis of a simple majority,
from single member constituencies
o Each Lok Sabha is formed for a 5yearterm, after which it is
automatically dissolved, unless extended by a proclamation of emergency. o The Lok Sabha can dissolved before the end of its five year mandate, or
extend beyond five years, by the president on the advice of the Prime
• Rajya Sabha
o The upper house of the Parliament of India. (The Council of States)
o Membership is limited to 250 members
12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their
contributions to art, literature, science, and social services
The remainder of body is elected by the state and territ