POLSCI 140 Complete Course Study Guide

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Political Science 140: Course Guide Terms (concepts, parties, etc) [First Half] • Dirigisme (75) o An economic system where the state exerts a strong directive influence over investment. It designates a capitalist economy with a strong directive, as opposed to a merely regulatory, role for the state. • Cohabitation (66, 67) o Occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as France's system, when the President is from a different political party than the majority of the members of parliament. It occurs because such a system forces the president to name a prime minister that will be acceptable to the majority party within parliament. Thus, cohabitation occurs because of the duality of the executive: an independently elected President and a prime minister who must be acceptable both to this president and to the legislature. o In cohabitation, Prime Minister takes the leading role • European Union (172, 187, 188) o The European Union (EU) was founded in 1948 in the aftermath of World War Two to promote stability and economic cooperation between member states. Comprised of 28 European countries, the EU has established common institutions - the Council (which represents national governments), the European Parliament (which represents the people), and the European Commission (an independent body that represents the collective European interest) – to democratically legislate specific matters of joint interest to participating countries at a European level • Electoral thresholds and small parties (124, 154, 159, 179) o Thresholds are the minimum share of the vote which a political party requires to secure any representation  Party list Proportional Representation o The effect of an electoral threshold is to deny representation to small parties or to force them into coalitions, with the presumption of rendering the election system more stable by keeping out radical factions. • Names of Prime Ministers and Presidents of Britain, Germany, France o Britain: David Cameron (C) o Germany: Chancellor -Angela Merkel (CDU) President - Joachim Gauck (Independent) o France: Prime Minister - Jean-MarcAyrault (Socialist Party) President - François Hollande (Socialist Party) • Iron Law of Oligarchy (24, 27) o All organizations tend toward oligarchy (rule by the few) rather than democracy. o “ Who says organization says oligarchy” o Forces that push (political) organizations to oligarchy  The need for specialization and differentiation that exists in all large, modern organizations  Most ordinary members do not have the time or resources to hold their leaders accountable and that they often crave strong leadership  Parties foster leaders who live “off” politics rather than “for” politics. They exploit their leadership positions to advance their own ambitions for wealth and power, often to the detriment of their followers • Judicial Review (42, 144) o The system of high courts ruling on challenges that other units of government have exceeded there powers allocated to them by the constitution. o None in Britain • Name ideologically and electorally significant parties and where they would fall on a Left-Right continuum in Britain, Germany, France o Britain: Left – Labour Party (Minority) Center – Liberal Democrats (Coalition w/ Majority) (lean left) Right – Conservative Party (Majority) o Germany: Left – Social Democratic Party (Minority) The Left/Greens (Far Left) Right - Christian Democratic Union (Majority) Free Democratic Party (Far Right) o France: Left - Socialist Party (Majority) Right - Union for a Popular Movement (Minority) • German Länder (states) (144, 148) o 16 States: 10 in the West, 6 in the East (created after unification) o Regional economic centers dispersed through states o Mass media focused around regional markets o Different states are different culturally and politically  Typically along east-west • Minimum winning coalition o Acoalition that tends to be as small as possible, as long as it is can secure a parliamentary majority. o If two small parties each receive a quarter of the vote they will form a coalition that gives them the majority over forming with a larger party that received a less than half the vote because parties will prefer the largest relative size within the coalition. • Grand Coalition (160) o Formed by the two leading parties, usually from the left and the right, which together command a substantial majority of seats o Example: The first Merkel government was a grand coalition between the centre-right Christian Democrats/Christian Social Union and the centre- left Social Democrats, as the CDU/CSU’s more obvious coalition partner – the Free Democrats – did not have enough seats to give a centre-right coalition a majority • Bureaucracy/civil service o Abody of nonelected government officials, administer laws and deliver public services o Most important group, are the higher civil servants (smallest group) who advise ministers and oversee work of their departments. o Relationship between the Bureaucracy and Legislatures is critical • Duverger’s Law o When there is a systematic relationship between electoral systems and party systems, so that plurality single-member district election systems tend to create two-party systems in the legislature, while proportional representation electoral systems generate multiparty systems.  Mechanical effect: The way that different electoral systems convert votes into seats. In single-member district systems, parties get no representation unless they finish first in at least one district. Therefore, smaller parties that run second, third or fourth across many districts receive little or no representation.  Psychological effect: Both voters and candidates anticipate this mechanical effect. Therefore voters do not throw their support behind hopeless parties and candidates. Instead they support the second or third best option in order to keep a party they strongly dislike from winning.Also knowing this makes minor party candidates reluctant to run • Plurality vs. majority o Refers to the largest number of votes to be received by any candidate (or any proposal in a referendum). It is contrasted with an absolute majority, or simple majority, which is more than half of the votes. o In other words, in an election contested by more than two candidates, plurality occurs when one candidate receives the most votes but not necessarily more than half of the votes, while in a majority election a candidate wins if they receive over half of the votes. When no candidate receives a majority in the first round of voting, a two-round system or ranked voting system can be used to choose a winner. • InterestArticulation (pluralist, neo-corporatist, controlled) o Pluralist  Multiple groups may represent a single societal interest  Group membership is voluntary and limited  Groups often have a loose or decentralized organizational structure  There is a clear separation between interest groups and the government o Neo-Corporatist  Asingle peak association normally represents each societal interest  Membership in the peak association is often compulsory and nearly universal  Peak association are centrally organized and direct the actions of their members  Groups are often systematically involved in making and implementing policy o Controlled  There is a single group for each social sector  Membership is often compulsory  Each group is normally hierarchically organized  Groups are controlled by the government or its agents in order to mobilize support for government policy • Parliamentary democracy vs. presidential democracy o Presidential democracy  President is directly elected and both head of state and government  Can lead to divided government if legislature and executive parties are different  Harder to pass legislation than in a parliamentary democracy o Parliamentary democracy  Prime Minister is not directly elected and is not the head of state  Lacks separation of powers  No divided government; PM head of majority; can be removed if loses confidence of majority (vote of no confidence) th th • 4 vs. 5 Republic (in French politics) (91) o 4 THRepublic  Had to weak of an executive branch, couldn’t cope with decolonization  One party couldn’t maintain majority. Governments fell too regularly: 24 governments in 12 years. o 5 Republic  Stronger executive, President plays more prominent role in combination with Prime Minister  Moved toward checks and balances as opposed to parliamentary superiority • Bundesrat vs. Senate vs. House of Lords o All Upper houses are not directly elected.Are less powerful than the lower houses in their legislatures. Bundesrat represents the states interest, HOL more for formal purposes than actual legislation, Senate is closest to a lower house, very similar to HOL, lacks prominence. • Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat (28) o Bourgeoisie are the industrial middle class, they are the bearers of democracy. They dominate the proletariat, lower class, and exploit them to make them work on their means of production. Have no worth but the value of their labor. • The classic Left vs. classic Right (Keynesianism and monetarism) o Classic left is liberal/socialist ideology. Big government… Welfare state.  Believe in Keynesian economics and redistributing to the poor o Classic right is conservative ideology. Limited government… Less taxes  Believe in monetarism economics and controlling the amount of money in circulation and keeping inflation down • Unitary state (Devolution of Power) vs. federal state (42) o Unitary state is one country that draws all its power from one supreme centralized government. Government is also united along one front  United Kingdom o Federal State is a union of self governing countries within a country  Switzerland o Devolution of powers is the granting of powers from the central government to government at a regional, local, or state level. • Head of state vs. head of government o The Head of government is the holder of the highest position in the executive branch. Such as a President or Prime Minister o The Head of State is the holder of the highest position, acts as the public representative of the country. Such as the Queen of England or POTUS • First ballot vs. second ballot in elections to the Bundestag o First part of the ballot citizens vote for a candidate to represent their district o Second part of the ballot citizen’s vote for a political party. Votes are added nationwide and the percent of the popular vote each party receives is the percent of seats they get in the Bundestag o Half the members are district representatives, half are party representatives  Seats in the party half are determined by the popular vote percentages in the second ballot • Three paths of development outlined by Barrington Moore • Role of judiciary in Britain, Germany, France o Britain: Very weak cannot overturn laws, has no judicial review. Only functions is as criminal/trial courts o Germany: Use judicial review; Strong judiciary system; Similar to USA o France: Has some form of judicial review; in the middle strength wise overturn laws, just less frequently • Industrialization (13-14, 25-26, 88-91, 126) o Period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial one. • Ruling political parties/coalitions in each of Britain, France, Germany, o Britain: Conservative/Liberal Democrats o France: Socialist Party/Miscellaneous Left/Citizen and Republican Movement/Radical Party of Left o Germany: Christian Democrat Union/Christian Socialist Union/Free Democratic Party • Proportional representation (153) o In multimember districts the number of seats won by a party or group of candidates is proportionate to the number of votes received.  If 30% of voters support a particular party then roughly 30% of seats will be won by that party o Voting for political party; Parties offer lists of candidates for districts  Closed list PR: elected representatives drawn from the top of the list, in declining order; voters have no say about their candidates  Open list PR: Voters can give preference votes to individual candidates, this determines which candidate represents the district o Minimum vote threshold needs to be reached for the party to be represented in legislature (usually 5%) • First past the post o Avoting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes wins the election o Simple majority in single member districts (plurality) o Used in U.K. with two round voting system (majority runoff: second round) • Third Reich (Nazi) (134) o The Nazi’s used their domination of the parliament to enact legislation granting Hitler dictatorial powers, who than created the authoritarian state know as Third Reich o Pursued extremist politics, social and political parties that opposed Hitler were destroyed o Infrastructure built for wartime economy, military grew (violated Treaty of Versailles) o Cause of World War 2, lost after Surrender in May 1945 • Subsistence agriculture (20) o Self-sufficiency farming in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families. o Land owning class keeps surplus • Names of and powers of the legislative bodies in Britain, Germany and France (Lower House always more powerful) o Britain: Parliament  Upper House: House of Lords (Appointed)  Bills can be introduced in the House of Lords. It scrutinizes Bills that have been approved by the House of Commons. It regularly reviews and amends Bills from the Commons. While it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider its decisions. In this capacity, the Lords act as a constitutional safeguard that is independent from the electoral process.  Lower House: House of Commons (Elected)  All legislation concerning taxation or supply occurs in the HOC. The supremacy of the Commons in legislative matters is assured by the ParliamentActs, under which certain types of bills may be presented for the RoyalAssent without the consent of the House of Lords. o France: Parliament  Upper House: The Senate (Appointed)  May propose bills, review and amend bills. Rarely administration can award passing power for legislation to NAif stalemate between the two houses.Also monitor the administration's actions by publishing many reports each year on various topics.  Lower House: The NationalAssembly (Elected)  Propose and amend bills, more prominent house. Have the right for a Vote of Censure (vote of no confidence) to overthrow Prime minister and other ministers. o Germany: Parliament  Upper House: Bundesrat (Appointed by the States)  Represents the states’interests. Evaluates legislation, debates government policy, shares information between federal and state governments.  Lower House: Bundestag (Elected)  Enact legislation; all federal laws must receive its approval. However the executive branch initiates most legislation. Elects the Federal Chancellor who is head of the Executive Branch. • Welfare state (and Keynesianism) o Government should pump money into the economy in times of recession and should take money out in economic growth (taxes) o Government should redistribute money through welfare program: help the poor • Xenophobia (140) o Deep-rooted, irrational hatred towards foreigners • Name significant parties that do not fall on classic L-R spectrum, but rather on post-modern-traditional continuum. (72, 185) o Britain: Greens (PM) British National Party (T) o France: Greens (PM) National Front (T) o Germany: Greens (PM)Alternative for Germany Republikaner (T) • Median Voter result o Parties will moderate their policies so as to try to win support of the median voter (midpoint of political spectrum). o In two party systems, party needs to win a majority so targeting the “center” of electorate is critical • Features of democracy o Elected representative  In democracy representatives elected by the people make laws and frame policies of the government. o Elections  All adult citizens have the right to participate (vote) in .the elections. Elections should be free and fair and must be held at regular intervals. o Civil liberties  An important characteristic of democracy is that it grants top civil liberties to the citizens. They enjoy freedoms of speech, expression, and information. Citizens have a right to form, join or quit an association. It includes the right to form political party. o Rule of law  Another characteristic of democracy is that it ensures rule of law. Law is supreme and all the citizens are equal in the eyes of law. No one is above law. o Independent judiciary  Independence of Judiciary is an essential characteristic of democracy. Judiciary must be free from any control of the executive or the legislature. Judges must be honest and should deliver justice impartially. o Organized opposition party  The opposition party keeps an eye on the policies and working of the government. By criticizing the wrong policies of the government, it forces the government to make laws and frame policies for the welfare of the people. It prevents the government from being dictatorial. • Single-member district vs. multi-member district o Single member districts have one representative elected from the district, usually by a plurality or a runoff vote. o Multi member districts have multiple representative elected from the district, are usually larger than SMP and use a PR voting system • Elites vs. masses o Elites: a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth or political power o Masses: are exploited and have virtually no power in society • Multiculturalism vs. assimilation o When immigrants assimilate they adopt the culture of the country they are residing in. When immigrants don’t do this they keep their culture and co- exist with the dominant culture in the country they have moved to, which leads to multiculturalism. Terms (concepts, parties, etc) [Second Half] • Chinese Communist Party (CCP)  o Founded in 1921; in competition with the Nationalist Party o Unlikely contenders for power, eventual victory owed to historic  opportunities in the 1930s and 1940s  Communists were able to exploit these opportunities the best   Mao emerged as leader in the mid 1930s and consolidated power  in the early 1940s o Organized around a hierarchy of party congresses and committees  extending from the top of the system down to the grassroots.  o Inner­party rules for decision making are based on the Leninist principle  of democratic centralism  Democratic centralism: Centralized consultation throughout the  party, allowed to have opposing opinion­ not allowed to promote it  The formation of opposing factions not tolerated  o Dominating party of the People's Republic of China since the state's  creation. Dominates Chinese government and political life. Through the  nomenklatura system, the CCP is able to control every government post  and every decision the government makes. • Democracy  o System of government characterized by self­rule by the people. Frequent  and fair elections of rulers, open to all citizens of voting age. Principles  such as majority rule key. • Post­materialist values  o An emphasis of values that go beyond material ideas and products. While  materialist values emphasize survival materials such as food, shelter,  income, and clothing, post­materialist values include self­expression,  freedoms, participation in politics, and higher quality of life • Theocracy  o Form of government centered on a deity and an organized religion.  Officials rule through divine right and use their deity's word to guide their  policies. Iran is today's sole theocracy. • Economic liberalization  o Policy that lessens or removes a state's government's control of the  economy and markets. Normally includes free markets, legalization of  private business and enterprise, and introduction of foreign investment  into the economy • Russia  o Largest country in the world in terms of land. Rich in coal, oil, and other  natural resources. Independent since 1991. Until that time was the central  republic of the Soviet Union. • National People’s Congress  o People's Republic of China's legislative body. Consists of nearly 3,000  members. "Elected" by provincial congresses, but is just a part of the  government's hierarchy. Controlled by CCP through nomenklatura system.  Lacks any real power, as most decisions are made in the higher­up  committees of the government and CCP. • Civil society  o The realm of activity that falls between the state and the economy • Resource Curse (Rentier Thesis)  o Phenomenon seen over course of history that shows that, historically,  countries that sit on massive amounts of natural resources have tended to  be more authoritarian. Economically, these states tend to have small  growth rates with large rich/poor gaps. Examples: Russia, Iran • Bourgeoisie  o In Marxist ideology, bourgeoisie refers to the middle class "haves" who  control the means of production and oppress the "have nots" of society. In  Maoist doctrine, Bourgeoisie took on a new meaning: anything Western,  anti­Communist, anti­revolution, or anti­China. • Bureaucracy  o A body of nonelected government officials, administer laws and deliver  public services o Most important group, are the higher civil servants (smallest group) who  advise ministers and oversee work of their departments. o Relationship between the Bureaucracy and Legislatures is critical o Organized group of experts who are unelected but play a crucial role in  most governments. Role depends on the country. In western democracies  such as Britain or France, the bureaucracy drafts most legislation as well  as administering and enforcing it. In governments such as China or Iran,  bureaucracy is more of a pawn of the party and government. • Command economy  o Economic policy in which state government controls all aspects of the  economy. Markets are controlled and the state controls supply and  demand. No foreign investment is allowed, industry is controlled by the  state, and private enterprise is banned. Quotas for most goods are set and  agriculture is collectivized. • Great Leap Forward  o Chinese economic movement led by Mao from 1958­1961. Agriculture  was collectivized and Mao pressed for hyper­rapid industrialization.  Collectivization was incredibly inefficient, resulting in famine, death of  thousands, and economic collapse. Reds and Mao took a step back. • Proletariat  o In Marxist ideology, proletariat was the working class, exploited by the  Bourgeoisie (who controlled the means of production). Destined to hold a  communist revolution • Import substitution Industrialization  o Strategy of industrialization that emphasized domestic production over  foreign involvement. All foreign investment is blocked and industry is  owned by the state. • Ideology  o A system of ideas, values, and beliefs that form the basis of a economic or  political theory/policy. Example: communism in China. • Path dependency  o Tendency of a state or society's history to impact how it moves forward  (and increases its likelihood to repeat actions of the past). • Nomenklatura  o Main means by which CCP maintains control over all government and  party offices in China. Every office of even moderate importance is  managed by a party committee • Collectivization  o Hundreds of thousands of families on one farm, called a commune. Crops  are bundled together. Quotas are set for that farm's production, but they  were never met. Inefficiencies in system led to starvation of millions of  Chinese citizens during Great Leap Forward (1958­1961). • Soviet Union  o Communist state in Eastern Europe from 1922­1991. Union of most  eastern European republics, with Russia being chief state. • Globalization  o The international integration of economies, ideas, products, cultures, and  businesses due in large part to technology. • Patron/client relationship  o In politics, refers to a government (patron) providing a good or service  (food, legislation, job, etc) to a constituent/constituency (patron) in  exchange for voting loyalty. • Subsistence agriculture  o A means of living typical of pre­modernized or pre­industrialized  societies. Families lived as isolated units, simply trying to produce enough  food (from farming) to survive. Any surplus went to the ruling class; it  could not be sold for profit. Population of such societies rose or fell to  meet food supply. • Cultural Revolution  o 1966­1971 social and political movement led by Mao and the "reds" of the  CCP. After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, the "experts" had taken  the lead. The Cultural Revolution was Mao's way of re­solidifying the  power of the reds and himself. The goal of the Cultural Revolution was to  purge society and the party of anything "bourgeoisie", expert, or counter­ revolutionary. He carried out these goals by indoctrinating children by  controlling the education system, establishing Red Guards, and creating  the "Cult of Mao." • People’s Liberation Army  o Armed services branch of the CCP. De facto military of China. Defeated  the nationalists and, under Mao, establish the People's Republic of China  in 1949. • Confucianism  o Philosophy in China based on the teachings of Confucius. Emphasizes  order, duty, obedience, and respect for authority and elders. Still impacts  Chinese society today. • Long March  o 1934 retreat of the Red Army (now the People's Liberation Army) at the  hands of the Chinese nationalists. Thousands of miles long, with  thousands of Communists perishing over the course of the march.  However, during the Long March, Mao rose to prominence in the CCP and  the Communists won respect and prestige across China. Ultimately helped  them win power after WWII. • SOE (state­owned enterprise)  o Business created by a government that partakes in commercial enterprises  on the govt's behalf. • TVE (town and village enterprise)  o Market oriented public enterprise under the purview of loyal government  based in townships and villages in China • Leninist Vanguard Party  o Vanguard refers to the more class­conscious of the Proletariat. Marx  predicted they would form organizations, hold meetings, etc. and spread  the consciousness to less­knowledgeable members to help their revolution. •Glasnost (340) o Part of Gorbachev's 1985 reform process ­ literally "openness," called for  societal and political openness in the Soviet Union • Dual Transition under Yeltsin  o More democratic, but open economy put wealth in the hands of groups of  oligarchs and led to massive corruption and plummeted growth. • Great Purges under Stalin  o Any political rivals or anti­Revolutionary/ anti­communist Soviet citizens  were either killed immediately or sent to a labor camp. Ultimately, 8­12  million Soviet citizens died at the hand of Stalin. • Economic protectionism  o Economic system in which government controls all aspects of the market.  Supply and demand is controlled, production is planned, industry is owned  by the state, and all private enterprise is banned by the government.  Quotas are usually set for all goods, and agriculture is often collectivized. • Bolshevik  o A faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party  (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second  Party Congress in 1903  Ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. o The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the October Revolution  phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Soviet Union • Perestroika  o Means "restructuring," refers to Gorbachev's economic reforms in 1985  that called for a more mixed economy. While the state still owned most  industry, private business were legalized to fill in some of the gaps from  the inefficient state­controlled industry. • Oligarchs o A term that refers to the set of political institutions by which a government  of a state is organized in order to exert its powers over a Community  politics • Soviet “Era of stagnation”  o Began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964­1982) and continued  under Yuri Andropov (1982­1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984­ 1985). This period ended when Mikhail Gorbachev  Prolonged period of slow economic growth under Bezhnev o Causes  As vast as the state’s powers were their use was frustrated by  bureaucratic immobilism (deep­seated resistance to political)  change.  Overcentralization undermined the leaders’ actual power to enact  significant policy change­ or even recognize when significant  policy change was needed  The political system of the soviet union grew top­heavy,  unresponsive and corrupt   Regime unable to modernize the economy or improve living  standards for the population  o The lack of reform, or the high expenditures on defense, led to stagnation. o The majority of scholars set the starting year for economic stagnation  either at 1973 or 1975, although some claim that it began as early as the  1960s • Chechnya  o Issue of Putin's centralization­ the smaller ethnic areas surrounding Russia  were absorbed into larger surrounding, sought for independence but only  Chechnya fought back with war­ ended but continued with guerilla  warfare and once Islam took over continued to terrorism • United Russia  o Current ruling centrist party in Russia. It is the largest party in the country,  currently holding 238 (or 52.89%) of the 450 seats in the State Duma  Putin’s Party o The party was founded in December 2001 through a merger of the Unity  and Fatherland­All Russia parties. o Ideologically, it self­identifies as a "Russian conservative" party, and it  supports the policies of the current presidential administration. o The most popular party in the country, ahead of the Communist Party (at  19.19% • Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)  o A centre right, conservative, political party and the largest party in Japan. o The LDP has been in power since 1955, except for a brief 11­month period  between 1993 and 1994, and from 2009 to 2012. o In the 2012 election it regained control of government. It holds 295 seats  in the lower house and 115 seats in the upper house. • Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)  o A social liberal (Centre­left) political party in Japan founded in 1998 by  the merger of several smaller parties.  o It is the second­largest party in the House of Representatives and the  House of Councilors o It constitutes the primary opposition to the long­dominant Liberal  Democratic Party. o After the 2009 election, the DPJ became the ruling party in the House of  Representatives, defeating the long­dominant Liberal Democratic Party  During its time in office, the DPJ was beset by internal conflicts  and struggled to implement many of its proposed policies, an  outcome described by political scientists as the "paradox of  political change without policy change  Legislative productivity under the DPJ was particularly low, falling  to levels unprecedented in recent Japanese history according to  some measure • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)  o A Mexican political party that held power in the country for 71 years. o PRI is not considered a socialist party in the traditional sense; its modern  policies being characterized as centrist. o Voted out of power for the first time in 2000 • National Action Party (PAN)  o One of the three main political parties in Mexico. Center right, Christian  democratic party o Since 2000 and until 2012 the President of Mexico had been a member of  this party; both houses have PAN pluralities, but the party does not have a  majority in either house of the Congress. • Indian National Congress (INC)  o One of the two major political parties in India o It is the largest and one of the oldest democratically operating political  parties in the world. o The party's modern liberal platform is largely considered centre­left wing  in the Indian political spectrum o Became a pivotal participant in the Indian Independence Movement, with  — over 15 million members and over 70 million participants in its  struggle against British colonial rule in India. o After independence in 1947, it became the nation's dominant political  party, led by the Nehru­Gandhi family for the most part; major challenges  for party leadership have only recently formed o In the 2009 general elections, the Congress emerged as the single largest  party in the Lok Sabha, with 206 of its candidates getting elected to the  543­member house. Consequently it, as a member of a coalition of  political organizations called the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), was  able to gain a majority and form the government. • Scheduled castes  o The basic social units that still govern marriages, social network, food  taboos, and rituals un India o In the past, caste regulated the choice of occupation as well, which was  typically caste­specific and hereditary at the same time. o Changed rapidly because of modernization, legislation, and urbanization  o Government quota system has opened up top jobs that once were the  prerogative of the upper castes o 2000 jaits in India traditionally divided into four categories varnas  The Brahmins: preists  The Kshatriyas: rulers, fighters, landowners  The Vaisyas: Mercantile  The Sudras: Service groups, agriculturists and artisans  • Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)  o One of the two major parties in the Indian political system o Established in 1980, it is India's second largest political party in terms of  representation in parliament and in the various state assemblies. o Is official ideology and central philosophy to be the right­wing Hindu  nationalist  "integral humanism", based upon a 1965 book by Deendayal  Upadhyaya. o The BJP led the national government along with a coalition of parties of  the NDA from 1998 to 2004, with Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Prime Minister,  thus making it the first non­Congress government to last a full term in  office • Kashmir  o Northwest region of Indian subcontinent, predominantly Muslim, fought  for independence on union with Pakistan o Now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's  Republic of China. • Lok Sabha   o The lower house of the Parliament of India (House of the People) o Consists of 545 members; 542 are directly elected and two are nominated  by the president of India as representatives of the Anglo­Indian  community o Elections of the members take place on the basis of a simple majority,  from single member constituencies  o Each Lok Sabha is formed for a 5­year­term, after which it is  automatically dissolved, unless extended by a proclamation of emergency. o The Lok Sabha can dissolved before the end of its five year mandate, or  extend beyond five years, by the president on the advice of the Prime  Minister • Rajya Sabha  o The upper house of the Parliament of India. (The Council of States) o Membership is limited to 250 members  12 of whom are nominated by the President of India for their  contributions to art, literature, science, and social services  The remainder of body is elected by the state and territ
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