Comparative Politics Notes Part 3 - I got a 4.0 in this course

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University of Massachusetts Amherst
Political Science

Third World Political Development State Building and Nation Building The Challenge of Post-Colonial Development • Colonial Legacies • Weak States • Weak National Identity • Weak Economic Capability • Compressed Time-frame • Time is a critical aspect/variable • Substantive variable • When you change the amount of time that a country has to develop, that changes the dynamic of the nation • Speed introduces complications • Econ development coincides with pressure for decolonization What is a weak state?? Not good vs. bad states • • “There is no good state” • State is an organization • There ARE good/bad governments • Lacks Autonomy • Lacks Capacity • Refers to basic resources that a state has to do its business Government State Public Policy Implementation Enforcement Comply/reject Capacity - do they have the human resources to actually implement this? Autonomy - can the state implement policies irrespective to society? • State shouldn’t be influenced by interest groups • State doesn’t represent the people - it represents the government • All states need to have some level of autonomy from society and from government Why weak state in the Third World? • State-formation Compare Europe vs. Third World • • Paradox of Post-Colonial States • State apparatus is poorly developed • Greater demands placed on the state War Making • Whoever was left standing was, by definition, the strongest power in that area • States were formed within the third world by colonialism • “The state is a claim to the monopoly of violence” • Statehood happens overnight with decolonization “[A] Human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.” - Max Weber Territory - Arbitrary borders Organization - Weak bureaucracy Authority - Competing Claims on Power • Legitimacy • Lacks popular recognition of the ruler’s right to rule • Is there common recognition of the ruler’s right to rule? • Sources of legitimacy • Nation • Ideological Legitimacy • Market • Distributive/Performative Legitimacy The Nation • “[A]n imagined political community - and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign” - Benedict Anderson • Evolutionary process • Print capitalism and the Protestant Reformation Challenge of Nation Building in the Third World • Lack of common sense of identity • Only shared history is colonial history • All dominated by the same foreign colonizer • Often no common language • Hinders ‘imagined community’ • Language is a big element in forming a national • Communication is critical to national identity and to community Strategies of Nation-Building • Different approaches to national unification • Rudra Sil • Syncretism • An approach to nation-building which combines elements of foreign/modern and the native/traditional values Approaches of different leaders: Modernists Syncretist Nativists Nehru, Ataturk Gandhi Cabral, Al-Banna Modernist: all things that had gone wrong were a result of traditional aspects of society Nativist: Reject all things modern. West brought destruction. Not close to traditional values. October 23, 2013 Third World Political Development State Building and Nation Building Problems for Post-Colonial Nation-States • Corruption • Violence Cor
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