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PHIL 100

Philosophy Midterm Study Guide Introduction:  Plato’s Apology o An account of the speech Socrates makes at the trial in which he is charged with not recognizing the Gods that’s recognized by the state… and corrupting the youth of Athens o He defends himself  attempts to unroot ignorance o Meletus wrote the charge against him.  Accusation: “Socrates’ is guilty of wrong doing in that he makes the worse into the stronger argument and teaches them to others” o Socrates concluded that he must be wiser than other men only in that he knows that he knows nothing (people think they know what they know but in fact no nothing) o Investigation for any reputation of knowledge: found that those who were thought to be inferior were more knowledgeable while those who had the highest reputation were nearly the most deficient. o Found guilty  sentenced to DEATH  He accepts the verdict with the observation that no one but the Gods knows what happens after death and so it would be foolish to fear the unknown. Knowledge: Addresses the nature and scope of human knowledge— Epistemology  Rene Descartes o Struck by falsehoods he accepts as true in his childhooddemolished everything completely and starts again right from the foundations  Whatever he has up till now accepted as most true he has acquired either from the senses or through the senses  Doesn’t trust his senses b/c he could be deceived  Realizes he cannot doubt his own existencefollows from the fact that he is thinking = concludes that he is a thing that thinks  The mind is far better known to him than the body o States that what distinguishes real knowledge from mere belief is the added feature of indubitability – while one may have many beliefs, only those whos truth cannot be doubted will count as knowledge o Descartes rejects Skepticism  Defends a rationalists epistemology— he argues that beliefs justified on the basis of reason satisfy the criterion of certainty  Believes in Logic o Concludes that God does exist b/c the idea of God in his mind cannot be created by him since he is far more perfect  Derives a second proof for the existence of God while bodies are essentially extended, God is essentially existent. o Clearly perceives that the primary attribute of body is extension and that the primary qualities of body are size, shape, breadth etc. o Concludes the body and essence of mind are completely distinct  Hueme o Philosophical skeptics hold that one cannot know anything about the external world (everything that exists outside of one’s own mind) o Skeptic does not say you only know what is going on in your head he says you only know what’s going on in your mind o Skepticism is NOT the same thing as idealism  Instead skeptic maintains that we do not know there is an external world o EXAMPLE:  In order for me to know something to be true, I must have an adequate reason for believing it  Epistemology: all my beliefs must rest on beliefs formed by
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