[PSYCH 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (35 pages long)

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7 Feb 2017
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UMass Boston
PSYCH 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Section 1: The Brain and The Nervous System
Capgras syndrome: teaches us that with the brain connections are key. Brain regions connecting
facial detection and emotion are severed.
3.1 Brain and Behavior:
The brain is like the internet, power of both comes from interconnections among large numbers of
parts.
Rom Harre: emphasized the brain is like a tool, analogy highlights two valuable points.
1. You can use a tool for a variety of jobs. (brain was designed to solve evolutionary problems in the
past, but is also used to perform tasks such as reading, writing, or driving)
2. When you use a tool to perform a job, it is you, and not the tool that is responsible for executing
the job.
How The Brain is Like a Muscle
Like a muscle the brain changes when you perform a task repeatedly. The changes make it easier
to do the task in the future.
Experiences alter brain anatomy
Plasticity :The brain's capacity to change physically as a result of experience. * Plasticity makes the
brain unlike a computer. *When you run a software app repeatedly the hardware does not
change, but when you repeat tasks the brain does change.
Different parts of the Brain do Different Things
Brains are highly differentiated, different parts of the brain are involved in different types of
mental activity.
Brain Damage Evidence:
3. No mental ability: person wont have thoughts/ feelings.
4. All mental abilities are intact but impaired: the person will be able to think but less quick and
intelligent.
5. Selective loss of specific mental abilities: (MOST COMMON) some thinking abilities will remain
completely intact but others will be lost, indicates brain in differentiated.
Hind Brain: Four important Structures
1. Reticular Formation: alertness/attention
2. Pons: basic life function/ sleep/ dreaming, connections to cerebellum important to coordinating
low practiced body movement
3. Medulla: controls basic life functions such as breathing and heart beat
4. Cerebellum: still learning, helps us control highly practiced motor movement, problems may play
a role w behaviors assoicated with ADHD
Above hind brain
1. Thalamus: major relay station, receives imput from all sensory areas except smell, passes info to
proper area of cortex for processing
2. Midbrain: integrates sensory info and muscle movement. Helps us know where we are and direct
our eyes, helps respond to sound
Limbic System
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1. Hypothalamus: involved in basic motivations: hunger, thirst, sexual behavior. Regulating body
temp.
2. Amygdala: key role in emotions such as fear, rage and agression.
3. Hippocampus: plays a key role in forming permanent memories. Experiences do not register as
memories, and fade away in minutes, helps us naviagate way through our environment
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