[POLI 130] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (28 pages long!)

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POLI 130
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Introduction
January 11, 2017
Main question: how do we understand the global political and economic order?
Sub question: Will US remain superpower?
Breakdown of class
1st part: Modern nation states in Europe and America
17th, 18th, 19th centuries
Advantage
2nd part: Diversity of nation states around the world
3rd part: Contemporary issues
Ex: terrorism
Goal: decode debates
Modern nation states: describes life as well all know it, but the world wasn’t always that
way
Became this way between 17th and 20th century, depending on country
Transition to modern nation states
Economic
Agriculture to Industry
Before 16th century most people involved in agriculture
Daily survival, simple life
No need to produce things
Aristocrats main consumer of fine things
Industrial society based on making many things
Money to spend
Produce wealth → money → more guns → more troops
→ control rest of the world
Explains why US and European nations have more
wealth and power than Asian/Latin American
countries
Transition ended centuries of tradition
Movement to cities to work in factories
Capitalist industrialization vs. communist industrialization
Post-Industrial transition?
Cultural
Tradition to creation
Agricultural societies..
Local
Traditions
Wealthy only had access to universities
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Not a huge focus on technology/innovation
Community, stability
Grow food, eat food, die
UNEQUAL
Industrial societies..
Innovation
Competition
Education, social mobility
Individuals creating new value
Allows peasants to leave farms and explore diverse careers
Also some inequality
During transition → a lot of resistance
Agricultural elites did not want transition to industrial society
Political
Feudalism to nation state
Feudalism
Main form of government all around the world 13th to 17th
century
Hierarchies
Three main classes
King/Queen (Monarchy)
Control territory and provide security
Aristocrats
Elite landowners
Provide local security for peasants
Peasants
Masses who work on the land
People weren’t involved in government
Masses worked on farms and expected basic protection in return
If they didn’t get it → violent revolts → hard to do
Nation-state: citizen involvement, common identity
Nation: group of people who share real or imagined history
(culture, language, ethnic origin)
State: organization, people who maintain order and monopolize
violence in given territory
Ex: State has official authority to punish
Nations and states don’t always converge
States with multiple nations
Ex: empires
People who have states with no nations
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