BIOL 2251 Midterm: BIOL 2251 Notes/Review for Exam 1

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26 Aug 2017
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BIOL 2251 Opportunity 1 Review
Chapter 1
Anthropogenic caused by humans
Biogeography…
o the study of distributions of organisms (past and present)
o patterns of geographical variation
all of the abiotic and biotic factors
o Includes a scale from molecular (genes) to communities to ecosystems.
On a global scale, we use ecological models with collected environmental parameters to
estimate or predict the geographical distribution.
o Environmental parameters
Temperature
Rainfall
Elevation
Depth
Humidity
o Uses statistical tools
Bioinformatics allows us to put DNA sequences into a bioinformatics program so that we
can compare the DNA between species
o DNA could be different between two organisms of the same species
Sub disciplines of Biogeography
o Taxonomy
Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
o Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Maps; layers of data piled on top of one another
o Historical Biogeography
Origin, dispersal, and extinction of taxa and biotas
o Ecological Biogeography
Present distributions and geographic variation in diversity, ecology.
o Paleoecology
Relationships between organisms and past environments
o Macroecology
Relationships and distributions of taxa and environment over large
geographical scales.
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
o KARL POPPER (1968)
. Disoer patters osere ad osere others’ oseratios
2. Null and alternate hypothesis
Null: Sunlight does not make plants grow
Alternative hypothesis: Sunlight does make plants grow
3. Design the experiment
Need a control, independent, and dependent variable
4. Models and tests of models
5. General theories and conclusions
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BIOL 2251 Opportunity 1 Review
6. Publish in peer-review journals
7. Observe and discover patterns in peer-reviewed journals
8. Repeat
Uniformitarianism
o HUTTON (1795) and LYELL (1834)
Basic physical and biological processes on Earth today are happening now
as they always have because they are manifestations of universal
scientific law
Actualism
o SIMPSON (1970)
The processes of speciation, dispersal, and extinction are the same as
they always have been, but they have varying rates and importance.
Takes in account rare events
We’re due for aother olai eruptio.
REDI disproved spontaneous generation.
Evolution
o A change in allele frequencies that result in a change in characteristics
(morphological, physiological, behavioral) in a population over the course of
generations that results in speciation (new species) by natural selection.
o How does variation occur?
Mutations, insertions, deletions, and inversions
Segregation (meiosis)
Independent assortment and alignment
Crossing over
Random fertilization
o Evolution is random and is not all beneficial
o All species are transitional
o New tree of life
o Natural Selection
A change in the frequency of genes in a population through differential
survival and reproduction of individuals that possess certain phenotypes
Three Requirements
o Individuals vary in their traits
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BIOL 2251 Opportunity 1 Review
o Traits are heritable
o Variation in traits causes some individuals to have a higher
fitness (# of viable offspring that can reproduce)
Individuals with better fitness will pass more copies
of their genes down to the next generation and
that phenotype will come to dominate
o Unit of evolution = population
o Unit of natural selection = individual
Chapter 2
Four persistent themes in biogeography
o 1. Classifying geographic regions based on their biotas
specific soil types, vegetation types, and organisms
o 2. Reconstructing the historical development of biotas including their origin,
spread, and diversification
o 3. Explaining differences in abundance and richness among geographic areas and
along gradients
Abundance = # of individuals of the same species in a given area
Richness = # of different species in a given area
o 4. Explaining geographic variation in the characteristics of individuals and
populations of closely related species, including trends in morphology, behavior,
and demography
Newest of the four themes
BCE = Before Common Era
ARISTOTLE
o One of the first minds to question biodiversity and the origin of life
Theory of Common Descent
o Controversial
Static Model Hypothesis
“peies are ot related to eah other ad do’t hage oer tie
Transformation Hypothesis
Species are not related to each other but change over time
Separate Types
Species change and evolve (sometimes into new species) over
time but come from different ancestors
Common Descent
Species are related and change over time
Immutable
o Unchanging over time, or unable to be changed.
Mutable
o Liable to change.
Age of Discovery
o MARCO POLO (1271-1295) and COLUMBUS (1500s)
250 years ago only 1% of all species we know today were classified.
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