Final Exam Essay Questions.docx

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University of Rhode Island
APG 203
Professor Garcia- Quijano

Final Exam Essay Questions What is meant by “human adaptive strategies”? Mention, describe, and define the main human adaptive strategies contained in Yehudi Cohen’s typology, along with the most important social organization and technological correlates of each. • Human adaptive strategies: Ways for humans to survive. Strategies from foraging to farming (non-industrial and industrial) • Foraging: o Hunter-gatherers o Rely on nature to make living rather than controlling plant and animal reproduction  Control came with animal domestication and plant cultivation o Modern foragers are influenced by regions forces like trade and war o Made up of bands, constantly moving • Horticulture: o Cultivation that makes non intensive use of the factors of production o Uses simple tools and human labor o Fields are not permanently cultivated, have periods of fallow o Uses slash and burn, and shifting cultivation • Agriculture: o Cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land continuously and intensively o Uses domesticated animals, irrigation, and terracing • Pastoralism: o Herders of domesticated animals o Live in symbiosis with their animals, they benefit from each other o Herders protect their animals to ensure reproduction in return for food and other
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