[PSY 301] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!

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UT-Austin
PSY 301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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January Notes 1/28/2016 12:36:00 AM
Lecture 1/21
Introduction
Have to collect data, and have the same kinds of data to prove correct.
Females laugh more whenever find attraction because maybe genetics, cultural,
hormonal
Human behavior can be analyzed through psychology
Think farther than what is on the surface.
Lecture 1/26
I. Psychology in the News
Science: the more time you do a study; the more time you get the same result, the
more trustworthy it is.
If it’s ot trustorth, it’s ot a ad thig eause that’s ho siee orks.
Science it’s ot perfet. It’s gra.
Psychology: built upon the foundation of measurement
II. Measurement
Operational definitions: measurable way of getting that conceptual idea and
ask is that a alid easure?
o How do you translate some kind of psychological concept into something
measurable/operational?
o Ex. Operational definitions of falling in love: measurements of hormones
o Psychology has veered off from philosophy
Equation: some kind of theoretical concept as measured to conceptual ideal.
o Ex. Aggression as measured by heart rate increase (not too accurate because
could be increased in heart rate from running).
Common categories of psychological measures
o Self-reports: if asking about the person, who knows that person better than
himself? Much easier to collect. DISADVANTAGE if we have a poor memory,
or you want to appear different from how you actually are (impression
management), trying to look good, we all walk around with these theories in
our minds that may or may not match who we are (deluded about
themselves).
Ask people in context where people are trying to look good: if heard
of ads hih people hae’t heard of.
o All measures have a set of pros and cons
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o Iforat reports: askig other people. The’d e less likel to tr ad reate
a good impression/deluded about it.
o Behavioral measures: history of psychology has been built on behavior.
Focusing on objective behavior. Measures of aggression, emotions, etc.
o Biological measure: heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation, brain activity.
III. Theoretical and historical perspective
General systems theory:
o Component: ex. Studying about eyes, brain, ears, etc.
o Developmental: ex. Crystallization, humans from conception to birth.
o Social: Focus on how one entity is related to other entities like it: esp.
humans and our social dynamics.
Descriptive vs. causal approaches: before we can understand causal approach we
need to have a clear description of the phenomena. Need to know something
happened before we explain why.
o Descriptive process: assoc. with correlation approach. Looking at how the
things we measure co-vary.
o Causal approach: experimental analysis.
IV. Designing psychological studies: Correlational approaches
Correlational coefficient statistics, we come up with relationship between two
variables (ex. Anxiety and self esteem). Go from -1 to 0. As we move up to levels that
are more related to one another, ex. The more anxious people are, the more angry
they are as well (proportional relationship). Analyze utilizing scatter plot. Ex. The
more anxious, the lower the self esteem (negative correlation).
o 0 is no relationship. 1 is perfect relationship. (never get 1.0 relation except in
trivial things).
o Correlation does NOT imply causation. (ex. If I boost your self esteem would
you become less anxious? NO IDEA because there might be a third variable
affecting it).
o Ca’t ake a ausal iferee uless ou do a eperiet.
Lecture 1/28
I. Descriptive vs. Causal: Descriptive looked at relationship among variables, while casual
thinking is a fundamental feature of eig hua: e’re doig little eperiets all the tie, to
uderstad ause ad effet.
II. Causal thinking and the experiment
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