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GEOL 103 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Radioactive Waste, Parent Material, Heat Capacity


Department
Geology
Course Code
GEOL 103
Professor
Gray Dean
Study Guide
Final

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UTK
GEOL 103
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Water Resources
What are the unique properties of water?
What are the major societal sectors that withdraw/consume water?
How does the hydrological cycle relate to water resources?
How will changes in climate affect water resources?
How can we extend water resources?
I. Properties of Water
A. Water has several unique properties compared to most other liquids:
1. Expands when it freezes
2. High boiling point
3. High specific heat
4. Excellent solvent
B. These properties are because water is a polar molecule
C. Hydrogen Bonding- Water molecules are attracted to each other
D. Saltwater makes up 95.96% of all water
II. Hydrologic Cycle
A. Water moves through this cycle at various speeds
1. 40,000 Years- Recycle ocean water
2. 2 Weeks- Recycle river water
3. 9 to 10 Days- Recycle atmospheric water
4. Weeks to 100,000s of Years- In ground water
B. P = E + I + R
1. Precipitation
2. Evapotranspiration
3. Infiltration
4. Runoff
III. Water and Humans
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A. Different impacts of naturally occurring surpluses & deficits
1. Excess water can result in flooding
2. Water shortages can result in crop failures & starvation
B. Fresh water is needed for most human activities
C. Only small portion of Earth’s supply is fresh &much of this is not
directly useful to people because it is unevenly distributed
IV. Fresh Water Demand
A. Withdrawn Water may be returned to its original source after use
1. Electric Generation
B. Consumed Water is withdrawn water that is not returned to its original
source
1. Agriculture
V. Global Water Shortage?
A. Regional & local water shortages have always existed because of
inequality of distribution
B. Now, because of population growth, hydrologic cycle is nearing its
limits of use at the global scale
C. Of total fresh water input to continents only about 9,000 km is
available for use by humans
D. Currently, people use about half of this amount
E. This amount is increased because of water becoming unavailable
through pollution
F. U.S. Daily Water
1. 4,200,000,000,000 (4.2 trillion) gallons of precipitation falls on our
country each day
2. 2,750,000,000,000 (2.75 trillion) gallons per day evaporate into the
atmosphere
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