CDAE 002 Midterm: CDAE002 Exam 2 Study Guide

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Tuesday, April 9, 2019
CDAE002 Exam 2 Study Guide
Climate Change!
-Scientific understanding of climate change- how scientists know what they know !
(Richard Alley video)!
Climate change is not political, it is happening right now!
Past climate change was due to natural variability, but recent and exaggerated climate
change is more complicated (more rapid; human involvement)!
High greenhouse gas emissions; type of carbon in atmosphere now can only be attributed
to human activity!
-Projected impacts of climate change on society!
More natural disasters (hurricanes, droughts, wild fires, heat waves, etc.)!
Economic costs/ damage!
Sea level rise; land not geographically uniform, parts of land under water!
-Projected impacts of climate change on agriculture!
Increase of temperature!
Changes in agricultural productivity (not necessarily all negative, just maybe dierent; ex.
Grapes for wine in dierent parts of the country i.e. Pennsylvania)!
Sea level rise!
Changes in sustainability of land for crop and livestock production !
Changes in natural habitats from more intense rain events!
Loss of biodiversity!
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Tuesday, April 9, 2019
-Adaptation!
Deliberate adjustments in natural or human systems and behaviors to reduce the risks to
people’s lives, livelihoods!
Examples include:!
-Adopting new varieties or new crops!
-Ecient irrigation/ harvesting water!
-Shift planting dates!
-Improve drainage!
-Build flood barriers!
-Plan for alternative power supply!
-Rainwater harvesting!
-Relocate from vulnerable areas!
-Mitigation!
Actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or store carbon and development choices
that lead to low emissions!
Examples include:!
-Use soil to store carbon (cover crops; mulching; no till)!
-Shifting consumption behaviors!
-Methane digesters!
-Reforestation!
-Implement renewable energy sources!
-Public transportation, cycling, walking!
-Compost organic materials!
-Waste minimization!
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Tuesday, April 9, 2019
Soil/ Water!
-Why is soil important?!
Soil is a hidden resource; need soil to increase food production to help lessen food
insecurity, especially with increasing population!
-Types of soil degradation- Human-Induced!
Water erosion (loss of topsoil; rill and gully erosion)!
Wind erosion (loss of topsoil; terrain deformation; overblowing)!
Chemical (loss of nutrients & organic matter; salinization; acidification; soil pollution)!
Physical (soil compaction; water logging; subside of organic soils)!
-Causes of Soil Degradation!
Deforestation (agriculture; logging; urbanization)!
Overgrazing!
Poor agricultural practices (usage of machinery)!
Overexploitation for domestic use (ex. Cooking with charcoal- burning vegetation on land)!
Industrial pollution (manufacturing processes; mining [both chemical])!
-Strategies to improve soil quality & protect soil!
Improved crop management (conservation agriculture; cover crops; diverse crop rotations;
agroforestry; composting)!
Structural practices (terraces; stone bunds)!
Reforestation!
Managed grazing!
Improved irrigation and drainage!
Reduce compaction!
Pollution control!
Strategies are also happening on a national level (ex. Green Wall of China)!
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