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PHIS 206 Quiz: Physiology Last Quiz Study Guide
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2 Pages
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Department
Physiology and Biophysics
Course Code
PHIS 206
Professor
Charles Anderson; Steven Price

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Post. Pit. Hormones:
Vasopressin (ADH) - Release when body too salty (hyperosmotic)  sensor in
hypothalamus
-conserves water ( reabsorption),  blood pressure (vasoconstriction)  goes to nephrons in
kidneys + arterioles in body
-hypersecrete: SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH)
-hyposecrete: diabetes insipidus
Oxytocin - release by suckling breast, pressure on uterine cervix, bonding behaviors
(‘cuddling hormone’), orgasm (pos feedback),
-cause milk letdown from lactating breast, uterine contraction  pitocin (synthetic oxytocin to
induce labor)
__________________________
Ant. Pit. Hormones:
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) - tropic
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) - tropic
Growth hormone (GH) - trophic  stimulates hypertrophy and hyperplasia
- GH in adulthood = acromegaly
Luteinizing hormone (LH) - tropic + trophic*
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - tropic + trophic*
Prolactin (PRL) - trophic - release during pregnancy, sexual activity, ovulation, a fed
state, many other
-leads to breast development, milk production, suppress sex hormone levels, many more
-Hypersecretion: can’t lactate; hypersecrete: too much milk, less libido, infertility, abnormal male
breast development
________________________________
Thyroid hormone (thyroid gland) - -T3+T4 (90%T4,10%T3; T3=4X power as T4)
-metabolic rate + heat prod.
-HR, contractile force, cardiac output
-need for proper function + secretion of GH and IGF-I
-not essential, improves quality of life
Hypothyroidism (most commonly caused by iodine deficiency) - cold intolerance, fatigue,
constipation, weight gain, depression
Hyperthyroidism (excess TSH or similar/overstimulation of thyroid gland) - heat
intolerance, nervousness, diarrhea, weight loss, anxiety
______________________________________
Calcium Regulation Hormones
Parathyroid Hormone (release triggered by low blood Ca+)
  blood Ca+
  bone resorption (breakdown) by  osteoclast activity;  Ca+ reabsorption by kidney;  Ca+
absorption in intestine (through Vita.D activation)
Calcitonin (parafollicular cells of thyroid; release b/c  blood calcium)
  blood Ca+
 inhibit osteoclast activity, inhibit Ca+ reabsorption (antagonistic to PTH actions)
↑itamin D (skin, liver, kidney  form proper vit.D)
-facilitate Ca+ absorption from diet
_____________________________________
Adrenal Hormones
Cortex
-z. Glomerulosa: mineralocorticoid
 aldosterone (sodium retention, potassium excretion; controlled by RAA system in resp. to
BP; hyper-Na levels, K levels,  BP; hypo-BP hormone essential for life)
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Description
Post. Pit. Hormones: Vasopressin (ADH) - Release when body too salty (hyperosmotic) sensor in hypothalamus -conserves water ( reabsorption), blood pressure (vasoconstriction) goes to nephrons in kidneys + arterioles in body -hypersecrete: SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate ADH) -hyposecrete: diabetes insipidus Oxytocin - release by suckling breast, pressure on uterine cervix, bonding behaviors (cuddling hormone), orgasm (pos feedback), -cause milk letdown from lactating breast, uterine contraction pitocin (synthetic oxytocin to induce labor) __________________________ Ant. Pit. Hormones: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) - tropic Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) - tropic Growth hormone (GH) - trophic stimulates hypertrophy and hyperplasia - GH in adulthood = acromegaly Luteinizing hormone (LH) - tropic + trophic* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - tropic + trophic* Prolactin (PRL) - trophic - release during pregnancy, sexual activity, ovulation, a fed state, many other -leads to breast development, milk production, suppress sex hormone levels, many more -Hypersecretion: cant lactate; hypersecrete: too much milk, less libido, infertility, abnormal male breast development ________________________________ Thyroid hormone (thyroid gland) - -T3+T4 (90%T4,10%T3; T3=4X power as T4) -metabolic rate + heat prod. -HR, contractile force, cardiac output -need for proper function + secretion of GH and IGF-I -not essential, improves quality of life Hypothyroidism (most commonly caused by iodine deficiency) - cold intolerance, fatigue, constipation, weight gain, depression Hyperthyroidism (excess TSH or similar/overstimulation of thyroid gland) - heat intolerance, nervousness, diarrhea, weight loss, anxiety ______________________________________ Calcium Regulation Hormones Parathyroid Hormone (release triggered by low blood Ca+) blood Ca+ bone resorption (breakdown) by osteoclast activity; Ca+ reabsorption by kidney; Ca+ absorption in intestine (through Vita.D activation) Calcitonin (parafollicular cells of thyroid; release b/c blood calcium) blood Ca+ inhibit osteoclast activity, inhibit Ca+ reabsorption (antagonistic to PTH actions) Vitamin D (skin, liver, kidney form proper vit.D) -facilitate Ca+ absorption from diet _____________________________________ Adrenal Hormones Cortex -z. Glomerulosa: mineralocorticoid aldosterone (sodium retention, potassium excretion; controlled by RAA system in resp. to BP; hyper-Na levels, K levels, BP; hypo-BP hormone essential for life) -z. Fasciculata: glucocorticoids Cortisol (fuel liberation to aid in stressful situations, anti-inflammation, immunosuppression; hypothalamis-pit.axis; hyper-Cushings syndrome;hypo-Addisons disease) ACTH triggers synthesis and release -z. Reticularis: adrenal sex hormones Medulla Catecholamine hormones: epinephrine + norepinephrine (not steroid hormones) ______________________________________ Hypothalamic-Pit. axis = allows levels of final target hormone to be tightly controlled via negative feedback mechanisms Hypothalamus-pit.-thyroid (HPT) axis =TRH TSH TH TSH + TRH (neg feedback) ____________________________________ Alpha cells - glucagon (glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, protein breakdown, fat breakdown) increase blood glucose Beta cells - insulin (glycogenesis, protein synthesis, fat synthesis) lowers blood glucose _______________________________________ Definitions: Tropic - cause target organ to release another hormone hypothalamus hormones=tropic for ant. Pit. hormones Trophic - cause target tissue to grow, develop, or change Hyperplasia - # cells Hypertrophy - cell size Hyperparathyroidism blood Ca+ too high (hypercalcemia) Hypoparathyroidism blood Ca+ too low (hypocalcemia) Cushings
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