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PSYCH 105 Midterm: Exam 4 Notes

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Washington State University

Exam 4 Notes Effect of Central Human Goals on How We Are Influenced - Central goals that we all hold, that are sometimes used against us. o Choosing correctly o Gaining social acceptance o Managing our Self-Image 6 Principles of Social Influence and Their Connection to Goals - Each is based on a heuristic and linked to an important goal or motive. o Seeking accuracy o Seeking social approval o Managing self-image - These heuristics normally work well for us, but compliance professionals use them against us. - Principle #1: Social Validation o Heuristic: When in doubt, go with the majority opinion. o Ex. Canned laughter, presidential primaries o Especially likely to follow behavior of others when… they seem sure of themselves (and there is consensus among them), they are similar to you, the “right” behavior is ambiguous. o Ways in which people exploit this principle: salting the tip jar, lines for night clubs, number one selling car. - Principle #2: Authority o Heuristic: it pays to follow the suggestions of a legitimate authority. o Usually a good source of expertise. o Ways in which people exploit this principle: ▪ “I’m not a doctor but I play one on t.v.” - Principle #3: Scarcity o Heuristic: Scarce resources tend to be worth more. o The more valuable something is, the more people tend to grab it up. o Ways in which people exploit this principle: ▪ Limited number tactic • “This is the last one in stock” ▪ Deadline technique • “This deal is for today only!” - 4 Principle stems from a goal from managing our self esteem. - Principle #4: Commitment/Consistency o Heuristic: Stick with your commitments. o Exploited: 4 commitment-based tactics. o Foot-in-the-door technique ▪ Compliance with initial request changes self-image to be consistent with first favor. ▪ Would be inconsistent to refuse the second request. ▪ When a person convinces someone to commit to a smaller request so that they later commit to a bigger request. ▪ This means that as long as the request in consistent with or similar in nature to the original small request, the technique will work. o Low-Ball Technique ▪ After making a choice for something, people take “mental possession” of it. ▪ Agreeing to purchase something at a given price increases the likelihood of agreeing to purchase it at a higher price. • Ex. For example, when buying a car the salesman agrees a price, but must “check” with his manager if this is acceptable. While waiting you think you have secured a good deal. The salesman returns and says he manager would not agree the deal and the price is raised. Most people agree to the higher price. • Because the person has said “yes” or agreed to an initial request, commitment has been given. When the request changes or becomes unreasonable, the person will (to a degree) find it difficult to say “no” because of having originally committed themselves. ▪ It is often easier to continue with the commitment than to change. • Ex. “Here take this home and drive it over the weekend.” o Bait & Switch Technique ▪ People will accept a deal they would have dismissed if it had been offered first. ▪ Works by getting people to make a commitment to a general course of action. ▪ Goal: Managing self-image ▪ Principle: Commitment/Consistency
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