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Canada (158,274)
ENTR 3P99 (5)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7

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Brock University
Dirk De Clercq

CHAPTER 7 DESCRIBING AND PRESENTING DATADescriptive StatisticsWe use descriptive statistics in two ways1 They provide a description of our sample by summarizing and organizing our data Eg variables such as gender age income no of employees in organization sales etc 2 They provide statistics such as averages and spreads of scores of variables for the sample which will be later used as the estimates of the parameters of the population when we conduct inferential statisticsDescriptive statisticsorganizing the dataThey often involve calculating as well as producing graphical displays of inter alia frequencies of different occurences central location of a distribution spread of a distribution shape of a distributionFour Common Descriptive Summary Measures distribution of frequencies measures of the central tendency of the data measures of dispersion spread or variability skewness or normality of spreadMeasures of Central TendencyMeasures of central tendency are also referred to as averagesThe purpose of a measure of central tendency is to provide a single value which summarizes a variableThere are three commonly used measures of central tendency These areMode most frequently occurring score valueMedian middle value when scores are placed in rank orderMean sum of all scores divided by the number of scores ie arithmetical averageThe ModeThe most commonly occurring observationvaluecaseThe mode or modal class can be calculated for minimal ordinal interval or ratio scale dataeg 2 2 2 3 4 5 1000Mode2With a variable measured on interval or ratio scales there may be no two values which are identical In this case a modal class may be calculated by first grouping your cases into ranges eg 018 years 1929 years 3039 years etc and determining the category with the largest number of cases the modal class
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