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Chapter 4

LING 1P93 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Face Validity, Operant Conditioning, Developmental Psychology

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Richard Welland

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LING 1P93 Chapter 4 Notes
Assessment: the systematic process of gathering information about an individuals
background, history, skills, knowledge, perceptions, and feelings
Multidisciplinary: involving many professions/professionals
4 Purposes of Assessment
1) Identify skills (in an area of communication)
2) Design Intervention (on what to do to #x or prevent communication disorder)
3) Monitor(a persons communicative growth overtime)
4) Qualify a person for special treatment
The Assessment Process has 5 stages:
1. Screening and Referral
the delivery of a test or task that provides quick check of a person
performance in that area
Developmental screening: done at key developmental junctures in a persons
Injury-related screening
Referral: process by which the involvement of professionals is formally requested
2. Designing/administering the assessment protocol
Sensitive protocol: identi#es whether a problem is present and characterizes the
sensitivity of it
Comprehensive protocol: identi#es all the dimensions of the problem
Non biased protocol: characterizes communicative performance regardless of race,
ethnicity, gender etc
Family centered protocol: where family members are involved
*In designing the assessment protocol, the professional uses materials like: chart
review, interviews, systematic observation, questionnaires and surveys, testing, and
Online performance: studying a communicative process as it happens
3. Interpreting assessment #ndings
Di6erential diagnosis: process of di6erentiating a disorder from other possible
alternatives to arrive at the most accurate diagnosis
4. Developing an intervention plan
*All goals identi#ed through the assessment process should exhibit the following
Functional- goals should improve clients life in some way
Attainable- goals should be realistic and achievable
Measurable- goals should link directly to some aspect of measurement so progress
can be documented
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5. Monitoring progress and outcomes
How are assessment instruments categorized?
Validity and Reliability
Validity: the extent to which a particular instrument measures what it says it
Construct validity: the extent to which an instrument examines the construct
it was designed to
Face validity: the extent to which an instrument appears super#cially to test
what it purports to
Criterion validity: extent to which the outcomes of an instrument re8ect the
outcomes from
other instruments measuring the same construct
Concurrent validity: how an instruments outcomes relate to outcomes
of other
similar measures
Predictive validity: predicts future performance in area examined
Reliability: extent to which an instrument is consistent in its measurement of a skill,
Test-retest reliability: the stability of an individuals test performance over
Inter-rater reliability: the consistency of assessment outcomes over multiple
Types of Assessment
Norm-Referenced assessment: compare an individuals performance in a particular
area of communication to that of his or her same age peers
*They share 3 important qualities:
Standardization: test must be given in a uniform manner so that its given the
same way 2 every1
Normative Sample: persons test performance can be compared to a group of
people who were
given the test at speci#c age levels
Standard Scores: index that identi#es how a persons test performance
compares to that of their
normative peers
Criterion-Referenced Assessment: determines a persons level of achievement or
skill in a particular area of communication
must have clear standard of performace, design good tasks to test, clear
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