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Chapter 15

LING 1P93 Chapter Notes - Chapter 15: Electromyography, Birth Weight, Traumatic Brain Injury


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LING 1P93
Professor
Richard Welland
Chapter
15

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LING 1P93 Chapter 15 Notes: Feeding & Swallowing Disorders
Oral-motor system: the physical structures and neuromuscular functions involved
with both eating and speaking
-Oral-motor functions: strength and coordination of the articulators
-Oral-motor muscular tone: the tension and posture of the articulators
-Oral-motor sensation: the sensitivity to taste, movement, and textures
Pediatric Feeding Disorder: persistent failure to eat adequately
May also exhibit
: Unsafe swallowing, Growth delay, Lack of tolerance of food,
Poor appetite
Dysgraphia: swallowing impairment
-Swallowing/Deglutition: the complex neuromuscular act of moving
substances (bolus) from the
oral cavity to the esophagus
Penetration: food or liquid enters the larynx
Aspiration: food or liquid passes into the lungs causing pneumonia
The Normal Swallow: consists of 4 phases
The Oral Preparatory Phase
: prepares the substance to be swallowed for
swallowing
-Mastication: swallowing
The Oral Phase:
moves the bolus to the rear of the oral cavity and prepared
it for propulsion
down the throat
The Pharyngeal Phase
: propels the bolus downward through the throat to
entrance of the
esophagus
-Pharyngeal Swallow Re+ex: posterior pharyngeal wall and the back of
the tongue move
toward one another to create a pressure that moves the bolus down
the pharynx in
conjunction with squeezing pharyngeal muscles
-Re+exive cough: a protective re+ex in which exhaled air is forced
upward through the
vocal folds to expel any foreign matter
-Apneic moment: a brief half in respiration during the pharyngeal
phase of swallowing
-Cricopharyngeus muscle/Upper esophageal sphincter: juncture
between the pharynx
and the esophagus
The Esophageal Phase
: moves the bolus through the esophagus into the
stomach
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Enteral feeding tube: a tube that directs liquid formula to the stomach and is
typically places through the nose or directly into the stomach
Causes of Dysgraphia: head/neck cancers, neurological injuries, medical treatments,
low birth weight, prematurity, cleft palate
De%ning Characteristics of Feeding & Swallowing Disorders: refusal to eat,
eating non-nutritive substances, rigidity in eating
Feeding/Swallowing is UNSAFE, INADEQUATE, INAPPROPRIATE
Unsafe Feeding and Swallowing
: typically unsafe when they pose a risk of
penetration or aspiration of the bolus into the airway
typically results from the damage to a childs oral-motor system or
inappropriate eating rate
Causes & Risk Factors
: low muscle tone, delayed motor development,
physical deformities
Inadequate Feeding & Swallowing
: refers to cases in whch the child in unable to
achieve the nutrition needed for healthy growth and development;
Occurs for 4
primary reasons
:
Ine8ciency: unable to meet their caloric and nutritional needs (get tired too
easily,
breathless)
Overselectivity: eat too little because they are very picky eaters
Refusal: undernutrition that can result from a complete refusal to eat for
several reasons (an
unresolved physical/medical issue; Re+ux: gastrointestinal distress;
Conditioned dysgraphia: a
traumatic event that result in refusal to eat like poisoning)
Feeding delay: delayed development of feeding skills due to developmental
delays, illnesses,
or trauma
Causes & Risk Factors
: trauma, abuse, accidents, illnesses, developmental
disabilities, oral
motor dysfunction, prematurity, prenatal drug exposure, diet restrictions due
to diabetes, etc
Inappropriate Feeding & Swallowing
: demonstrate undesirable and disruptive
behaviors during mealtimes (spitting, screaming, throwing, hitting, eating too
slow/fast, dropping food)
Causes & Risk Factors
: may stem from parent behaviours such as
being overactive/overstimulating,underactive/passive/unengaged,
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