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Chapter 2

PSYC 2P12 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Amniotic Sac, Umbilical Cord, Fetus

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Cathy Mondloch

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Prenatal Birth Ch. 2
The First Step, Fertilization !
Uterus : the pear shaped muscular organ in a woman’s abdomen that
houses the developing baby.
Endometrium : velvety tissues that thickens in preparation for pregnancy
and sheds during menstruation.
Cervix : the neck or narrow lower portion of the uterus.
Fallopian tube : one of a pair of slim, pipe-like structures that connect the
ovaries to the uterus.
Ovary : one of a pair of almond shaped organs that contain a women’s
ova, eggs.
Ovum : an egg cell containing the genetic material contributed by the
mother of the baby.
Fertilization : the union of sperm and egg.
Ovulation : the moment during a woman’s monthly cycle when an ovum is
expelled from the ovary.
Hormones : chemical substances released in the bloodstream that target
and change organs and tissues.
Testes : male organs that manufacture sperm.
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The Genetics Of Fertilization
Chromosome : a thread-like strand of DNA located in the nucleus of every
cell that carries the genes, which transmit hereditary information.
Every cell in our body is carrying 46 chromosomes; except the sperm
and ova… they have half.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : the material that makes up our genes,
which bear our hereditary characteristics.
Gene : a segment of DNA that contains a chemical blueprint for
manufacturing a particular protein.
Prenatal Development
First Two Weeks (Germinal Stage)
Germinal stage : the first 14 days (2 weeks) of prenatal development, from
fertilization to full implantation.
Cell mass has not fully attached to the uterine wall. Within 36 hours,
the fertilized ovum (now singe cell zygote) makes first cell division.
Cell cluster divides every 12-15 hours as it heads down fallopian
tube. Soon the cells form a ball (blastocyst) and imbed into the
uterine wall (implantation). This is the location of the placenta where
the baby will receive nutrients.
Zygote : a fertilized ovum.
Blastocyst : the hollow sphere of cells formed during the germinal stage in
preparation for implantation.
Implantations : The process in which a blastocyst becomes embedded in
the uterine wall.
Placenta : the structure projecting from the wall of the uterus during
pregnancy through which the developing baby absorbs nutrients.
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