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Chapter 03


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PSYC 1001
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PYSC 1001A Spring 2014Chapter 3The Biological Bases of BehaviorWeiten W 2010 The Evolution of Psychology Psychology themesvariations 8th edBelmont Calif WadsworthCengage Learning31 Communication in the Nervous System Heredity and Behavior Is It All in the Genes nervous system is a complex communication network in which signals are constantly being transmitted received and integrated311 Nervous Tissue The Basic Hardware Your nervous system is living tissue composed of cells The cells in the nervous system fall into two major categories neurons and glia3111 Neurons defn Neurons are individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information The vast majority of neurons communicate only with other neurons However a small minority receive signals from outside the nervous system from sensory organs or carry messages from the nervous system to the muscles that move the body defn The soma or cell body contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells defn Dendrites are the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information defn The axon is a long thin ber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands In humans many axons are wrapped in cells with a high concentration of a white fatty substance called myelin The myelin sheath is insulating material that encases some axons and that acts to speed up the transmission of signals that move along axons The axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons which are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters defn A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another summary of neurons information is received at the dendritesit is passed through the soma and along the axon andis transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapses3112 Glia defn Glia are cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons tend to be much smaller than neurons outnumber neurons by about 10 to 1 glial cells supply nourishment remove waste from neurons provide insulation around many axons myelin sheaths that encase some axons are derived from special types of glial cells19
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