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PSYC 1001 Chapter Notes -Electromyography, Human Brain, Oxycodone

Course Code
PSYC 1001
Jennifer Pettalia

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Chapter 5 – Consciousness
Consciousness – the awareness of internal and external stimuli
Mind wandering – refers to people’s experience of task unrelated thoughts
Freud’s Levels of Awareness
Conscious – consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time
Preconscious – contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be
Unconscious – contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behaviour
Electroencephalograph (EEG) – a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over
time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp
oMeasures brain waves
oHuman brain activity is divided into 4 principal bands
Beta – awake/alert
Alpha – relaxed
Theta – light sleep
Delta – deep sleep
Biological rhythms – periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning
oOrganisms have internal “biological clocks” that monitor the passage of time
Circadian rhythms – the 24 hour biological cycles found in humans and other species
oParticularly influenced by sleep
oRhythms persist even when external cues are eliminated
oDaily exposure to light readjusts people’s biological clocks
Documenting/measuring sleep
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Electromyography (EMG) – records muscular activity and tension
Electrooculograph (EOG) – records eye movements,
Heart rate
Pulse rate
Body temperature
Sleep Cycle
Stage 1
1 – 7 minutes
Breathing & heart rate slow; muscle tension & body temperature decline
Alpha waves turn to theta waves
Hypnic jerks – brief muscular contractions that occur as people fall asleep
Stage 2
10-25 minutes
Sleep spindles (brief bursts of high-frequency waves) – appear against a background of
mixed EEG activity
Stage 3 & 4
30 minutes
Slow wave sleep – high-amplitude, low frequency delta waves become prominent in EEG
More relaxed – slower heart rate
Then cycle reverses itself and the sleeper gradually moves back upward through the
lighter stages
Stage 5 – REM
REM – rapid eye movements
Deep sleep – hard to wake
Irregular breathing & pulse rate
Muscle tone is extremely relaxed
High-frequency beta waves that resemble those observed when people are alert and
To summarize, REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye
movements; high frequency, low-amplitude brain waves, and vivid dreaming.
The other 4 stages of sleep are considered Non-REM (NREM) sleep consisting of stages
1-4, which are marked by an absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming,
and varied EEG activity.
People often repeat the sleep cycle about 4 times. As the cycle continues, the REM periods get
longer, and the NREM periods get shorter.
Sleep and the Brain
Ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) – consists of the afferent fibres running through
the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal.
oInvolved in the regulation of sleeping and waking
Sleep Disorders and Problems
Insomnia – chronic problems in getting adequate sleep
Narcolepsy – a disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking
Sleep apnea – frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep
Nightmares – anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep
Night terrors – abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense autonomic
arousal and feelings of panic
Somnambulism (sleepwalking) – occurs when a person arises and wanders about while
remaining asleep
REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) – marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments
during REM periods
Tend to unfold in familiar settings with a cast of characters dominated by family, friends, &
Everyone experiences dreams from a first-person perspective
Theories of Dreaming
Wish fulfillment (Sigmund Freud) – thought that people fulfill ungratified needs from
waking hours through wishful thinking in dreams.
oEx: an unsuccessful person might dream about great accomplishments
oCritic - Wish-fulfilling quality of dreams may not be readily apparent because the
true meaning of dreams may be disguised.
Cognitive, Problem-solving view (Rosalind Cartwright) – proposed that dreams provide
an opportunity to work through everyday problems.
oThere is a considerable continuity between waking and sleeping thought.
oDreams allow people to engage in creative thinking about problems because
dreams are not restrained by logic or realism.
oResearch shows that sleep can enhance learning
oCritic – just because people dream about problems from their waking life doesn’t
mean they are dreaming up solutions.
Activation-synthesis model (J. Allan Hobson & Robert McCarley) – dreams are simply
the by-product of bursts of activity emanating from subcortical areas in the brain.
oDreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces “wide-awake” brain
waves during REM sleep.
oDreams are just physiological response, our nerves are impulsive;
oCritic – the model can’t accommodate the fact that dreaming occurs outside of
REM sleep and that the contents of dreams are considerably more meaningful
than the model would predict.