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Chapter 2

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
Kim Hellemans

Chapter 2 -scientific approach assumes, laws of behavior can be discovered through empirical research ▯ -Goals of science of psych: -measurement/description of behavior, understanding/prediction of behavior, application of this knowledge to controlling behavior -theories permit psychologists to make the leap from description of behavior to understanding of behavior. Confidence in theory increases when their hypothesis is supported by research. -steps of a scientific investigation: 1) formulate a testable hypothesis 2) select research method and design study 3) collect the data 4) analyze data ad draw conclusions 5) report the findings -scientists use operational definitions to clarify what their variable means -depend on stats to analyze data -advantages of scientific approach: clarity in communication, relative intolerance of error -experimental research: involves manipulation of independent variable to determine effect on dependent variable -this is done by comparing experimental/control groups; must be alike in regard to important variables -any changes in dependent variable must be due to independent variable -experimental designs may vary Eg. more than one independent/dependent variable (variation seen in Capilano bridge experiment (anxiety and sexual attraction) -experiment: powerful research methods, permits conclusions about cause and effect relationships -not useable for a specific problem, tend to be artificial -descriptive/correlation research: when unable to manipulate the variables they want to study; allows psychologists to explore info that canʼt be open to experiments; canʼt demonstrate cause-effect relationships -naturalistic observation: involves careful observation of behavior, in natural setting w/o any intervention -clinical research: depends on case studies, in-depth investigations of individuals. Survey: researcher interviews qu
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