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PSYC 2301 (23)
Chapter 4


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Carleton University
PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

Health Compromising Behaviours (HBC, risk or problem behaviour)  Common characteristics: o Window of vulnerability in adolescence (the things we do when you are younger are different from what you do when you’re older, the set of rules are different. You could use this to educate them saying that you know that they will most likely drink them) o Self-presentation (how you look, you might be a nerd but if you smoke it makes you look cool) o Provides some pleasure o Gradual development (could start out smoking someone else’s, then you buy a pack to share with a friend, and then you are just a full blown smoker) o Common predictive factor (some people have certain characteristics that make you more opt to do these things, less educated, lower class, less social) o Similar profile of substance abuser o Socio-economic drivers Substance Dependence  DSM-IV defined it as when an individual persists in the use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. (You are abusing a substance even though there are problems that come along with it, if you continue to do that you become dependent on that). Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance (e.g. higher alcohol tolerance) to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms happen when use is reduced or stopped  APA defines it as when a user has repeatedly self-administered an agent that results in tolerance, withdrawal and compulsive behaviour  Substance abuse can include physical dependence, tolerance, addiction and withdrawal  Harms reduction focuses on the risks and consequences of substance abuse rather than on the drug use itself (as if we were to educate and explain about the negative effects to reduce the harms associated with the bad behaviour such as make sure you use condoms). It sets more realistic goals rather than telling you not to do it. Implemented through community-based programs as well (methadone clinics, needle exchange programs)  Insite program started in 2003 in Vancouver, Canada’s first safe-injection site, offers safe place for them to shoot up and will take the old needles and give them new ones. The benefits are lower rates of transfer of disease, lowers long-term costs to the healthcare system, improved access health care services, giving primary care and addiction treatment, brings stability to the community which is a safer environment  Illicit Drug Use- Illegal drugs: we will focus on opiates (heroin), cocaine, cannabis/thc, amphetamine-type stimulants. Psychoactive prescription drugs are a growing problem (opioids, oxycontin, stimulants)  ****Consequences of illicit drug use: Physical issues (physiological damage (cocaine can break down your septum), infectious disease (shared needles)). Mental health issues (anxiety, rebound depression (if you mess with the dopamine in your system, if you are super high you then get super low. Overload of REM sleep)). Social issues (Misjudgment, risky sexual behaviours (unprotected sex, people you wouldn’t normally have sex with)).  Alcohol Abuse: is a behaviour but alcoholism is a recognized disease by AMA. Responsible for more than 8,000 deaths per year. Linked to issues including (high blood pressure, liver damage, CVD, fetal-alcohol syndrome)  Alcoholic is physically addicted to alcohol, they display both withdrawal (which they don’t want so they keep drinking) and tolerance (which makes them drink more), which leads to loss of control. Problem drinkers have social, psychological and medical problems, which are from alcohol. Alcoholic doesn’t equal being a problem drinker.  Factors that influence the incidence: Genetic factors, men vs. women, socio-economic status, response to stress, social cues, cul
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