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PSYC 2500 (28)
Chapter 11

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PSYC 2500
Tina Daniels

CHAPTER 11: UNDERSTANDING SELF AND OTHERS 11.1 WHO AM I? SELF-CONCEPT Self-concept: refers to the attitudes, behaviours, and values that a person believes make him and her a unique individual. ORIGINS OF SELF RECOGNITION AGE RECOGNITION 9 months Interested in baby in mirror but not aware the it is a reflection of self 15 months Infants start to show self recognition in mirrors 18-24 months Look at more pictures of self than others, refer to self by name or personal pronoun *aware of self extends to an understanding of personal ownership *self-concept comes from self-awareness 3-6 years (Preschooler) Mention concrete characteristics (physical, personal preferences/possesions etc) 6-8 Mention emotions, social groups and comparisons to others 8+ (adolescent) Mention attitudes, personality traits, religion/poltical beliefs etc SEARCH FOR IDENTITY Adolescent Egocentrism: self-absorption that marks the teenage search for identity Imaginary Audience: feelings of being an ‘actor’ whose actions are always being watched by their peers. Personal Fable: tendancy of teenagers to believe their experiences and feelings are unique, as though no one has ever felt the way they do. Illusion of vulnerability: belief that misfortune only occurs to others. STAGES OF IDENTITY Diffusion: those who are overwhelmed or confused by the task of achieving an identity and are doing little to achieve one. Foreclosure: who have an ID determined mostly by adults rather than personal exploration. Moratorium: who are still examining different options and have yet to find a satisfactory ID. Achievement: who have explored alternatives and have deliberately chosen a specific ID. STAGES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT Crystallization: at about age 13-14, use their emerging ID as a source of ideas for a career. Specification: further limiting career options by learning more about a specific one and starting to obtain the training required for it. Implementation: enter to workforce and learn firsthand about the job. 11.2 SELF-ESTEEM Self-esteem: a person’s feelings or judgment of his or her own self-worth. SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE FOR CHILDREN Measures in 5 areas: 1. Scholastic Competence: how smart the child feels in doing school workz\ 2. Athletic Competence: how competent the child feels at sports and games requiring physical skill or athletic ability. 3. Social Acceptance: how popular the children feels in social interactions with peers 4. Behavioural Conduct: how adequate the child feels about behaving the way one is supposed to. 5. Physical Appearance: how good-looking the child feels; how much they like their physical characteristic (weight, hair, etc) SOURCES OF SELF-ESTEEM when parents are nurturing and involved/establ
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