UNDERSTANDING SELF AND OTHERS
11.1 WHO AM I? SELF-CONCEPT
Self-concept: refers to the attitudes, behaviours, and values that a person believes make him and her a
ORIGINS OF SELF RECOGNITION
9 months Interested in baby in mirror but not aware the it is a reflection of self
15 months Infants start to show self recognition in mirrors
18-24 months Look at more pictures of self than others, refer to self by name or
*aware of self extends to an understanding of personal ownership
*self-concept comes from self-awareness
3-6 years (Preschooler) Mention concrete characteristics (physical, personal
6-8 Mention emotions, social groups and comparisons to others
8+ (adolescent) Mention attitudes, personality traits, religion/poltical beliefs etc
SEARCH FOR IDENTITY
Adolescent Egocentrism: self-absorption that marks the teenage search for identity
Imaginary Audience: feelings of being an ‘actor’ whose actions are always being watched by their peers.
Personal Fable: tendancy of teenagers to believe their experiences and feelings are unique, as though no
one has ever felt the way they do.
Illusion of vulnerability: belief that misfortune only occurs to others.
STAGES OF IDENTITY
Diffusion: those who are overwhelmed or confused by the task of achieving an identity and are doing
little to achieve one.
Foreclosure: who have an ID determined mostly by adults rather than personal exploration.
Moratorium: who are still examining different options and have yet to find a satisfactory ID.
Achievement: who have explored alternatives and have deliberately chosen a specific ID.
STAGES OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Crystallization: at about age 13-14, use their emerging ID as a source of ideas for a career.
Specification: further limiting career options by learning more about a specific one and starting to obtain
the training required for it.
Implementation: enter to workforce and learn firsthand about the job.
Self-esteem: a person’s feelings or judgment of his or her own self-worth.
SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE FOR CHILDREN
Measures in 5 areas:
1. Scholastic Competence: how smart the child feels in doing school workz\ 2. Athletic Competence: how competent the child feels at sports and games requiring physical skill
or athletic ability.
3. Social Acceptance: how popular the children feels in social interactions with peers
4. Behavioural Conduct: how adequate the child feels about behaving the way one is supposed to.
5. Physical Appearance: how good-looking the child feels; how much they like their physical
characteristic (weight, hair, etc)
SOURCES OF SELF-ESTEEM
when parents are nurturing and involved/establ