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Chapter 8

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PSYC 2600
Elizabeth Nisbet

Book notes chapter 8 Natural Selection & Reproductive Success - Natural Selection • naturally occurring variation leads to differences in the ability to survive and reproduce (reproductive success) • the next generation contains more of the successful variant. - Darwin’s Finches – specific beak features that make it easier for each bird to do the task or go after the food they eat – adaptive Sexual Selection - Darwin’s solution - Certain characteristics make it easier for mate selection - Two forms of sexual selection • Intrasexual competition: Members of the same sex compete with each other for sexual access to members of the other sex  Ex: moose, the males compete with each other to win the female • Intersexual competition: Members of one sex choose a mate based on their preferences for particular qualities in that mate  One gender is attracted to the characteristics of the other gender  Ex: female peacocks are attracted to the bright/healthy colors of the male - Differences between species and within species Products of the Evolutionary Process - Adaptations - Byproducts ofAdaptations • Ex: nose, belly button, bones. Not really adaptive, but have features • Length of ring finger compared to pointer finger – longer ring finger = more testosterone - Noise or Random Variation • Noise: ear lobes. Don’t really do anything, but there are differences between people Evolutionary Psychology and Human Nature - Over evolutionary time, successful mechanisms spread through population and come to characterize all humans - Examples of evolutionary analysis at the level of human nature • The Need to Belong • Helping and Altruism • Universal Emotions • Sex Differences and Mating Behavior Sex Differences - Evolutionary psychologists expect that males and females will be the same or similar in all domains where sexes have faced the same or similar adaptive problems - Expect sex differences in those domains where sexes recurrently faced different adaptive problems Shackelford, Buss & Bennett (2002) - Imagine that you discover that the person with whom you’ve been seriously involved became interested in someone else. - With this in mind, choose A or B for each of the following. - Women know a child is theirs because it’s in them, men don’t know if a child is theirs for sure, so get more jealous over sexual infidelity than emotional infidelity - Still variation, some men said emotion and some women said sex, but overall men get more jealous over sexual infidelity and women get more jealous over emotional infidelity Sex Differences - Examples of differences between men and women that are attributable to recurrently facing different adaptive problems • Sex Differences in Aggression • Sex Differences in Jealousy • Sex Differences in Desire for Sexual Variety • Sex Differences in Mate Preferences - In areas where you have the same challenges, men and women should be similar, but in areas where they have different challenges, men and women will be different – ex. carrying a baby Sex Differences - Jealousy • Men over evolutionary history have risked investing in children who were not their own • Men should be more jealous in response to cues to a sexual infidelity • Women should become more distressed over a partner’s emotional infidelity - Men are generally more aggressive than women - What makes men versus women jealous is different - Differences in mate preferences • Men like attractiveness / youthfulness • Women like masculinity and high achievement Shackelford, Buss & Bennett (2002) - Results: • Men, relative to women, find it more difficult to forgive a sexual infidelity than an emotional infidelity • Men, relative to women, are more likely to terminate a current relationship following a partner’s sexual infidelity than an emotional infidelity - Percentage of sample that agreed that a partner’s sexual infidelity was more upsetting than an emotional infidelity… • Males: 61.9 % • Females: 22.0 % - Making sense of these results • Agreater percentage of males than females expressed jealously toward a sexual infidelity. • 61.9% of males and 78% of fem
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