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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 summary.docx

10 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

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Chapter6 How do we study the brains structure and functions Stimulating the brain Originally studied the brain through dissection of the brain in dead people or animals with brain injuries Then began to study brains physiological processes and electrical activity EEG New technologies are allowing us to image the brains activity of awake subjects in noninvasive waysOne such approach to look at brain development in infants is called the nearinfrared spectroscopy NIRS which gathers light transmitted through cortical tissue to image bloodoxygen consumptionA form of optical tomography Allows us to measure oxygen consumption in select regions of cortex even in 3 month olds Infants wear a cap with NIRs apparatus and watch videos of mobile objects or fixed checkerboard Process differently mobile objects more complex Both videos stimulate regions in occipital and temporal lobes but only mobile stimulates specific region in temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex So occipital probably involved in all visual processing stationary or mobile and infants as young as 3 months can distinguish between different types of stimuli Previously thought that prefrontal cortex wasnt active until 6 monthsMeasuring Brain and Behavior Neuropsychology Study of relations between brain function and behaviorNeuroanatomy was studied through sectioning and staining but now there dozens of techniques to allow us to identify molecular neurochemical and morphological structural differences These anatomical differences can be related to behaviour For example in Parkinsons cells in the brainstems midbrain substantia nigra die If kill these cells in animals they show symptoms similar to Parkinson Learning is also correlated with neuroanatomical changes such as synaptic organization and cell survival in hippocampus Ex Animals trained on visually guided mazes May not cause but correlatedBehavioural neuroscience is the study of the biological basis of behaviour Challenge is to develop methods to study normal and abnormal behaviour Also its difficult to measure behavior in animals as opposed to humans Humans can speaktalk about their symptoms Researchers must develop ways to get animals to reveal their symptoms Ethology is the study of animal behavior and provides the basis for modern behavioral neuroscienceMethods of Behavioural Neuroscience Neuropsychological testing of humansAnalysis of behavior must be tailored to the particular functions being studiedMemory has a variety of functions memory for events colors names etc and each must be measured separately Rare to be impaired in all forms of memory3 memory neuropsychological tests
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