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Chapter 5

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PSYC 2800
Amanda Helleman

Chapter 5 The basis of neural communication in a heartbeat Excitatory and inhibitory chemicals control heart rate Discoveries about how neurons communicate stem from experiments designed to study what controls an animals heart rate Bradycardia is a useful survival strategy that is an energy conserving response almost stopping your heartrate happens mostly when diving into water Found this commonly in animals otto loewi did many heartrate experiments on frog hearts acetylcholine ACh chemical transmitter that activates skeletal muscles Identified by Loewi during these experiments A Chemical Message The chemical that carries the message to speed up heart rate in frogs is epinephrine EP aka adrenaline It is produced by the adrenal glands the chemical that accelerates heartrate in mammals is norepinephrine epinephrine EP chemical messenger that acts as a hormone to mobilize the body for fight or flight during times of stress and as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system norepinephrine NE or noradrenaline neurotransmitter found in the brain and in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system neurotransmitter chemical released by a neuron onto a target with an excitatory or inhibitory effectStructure of synapses Synaptic vesicle organelle consisting of a membrane structure that encloses a quantum of neurotransmitter Synaptic cleft gap that separates the presynaptic membrane from the postsynaptic membrane A chemical Synapse Chemical synapse junction where messenger molecules are released when stimulated by an action potential Junction where messenger molecules are released from one neuron to excite the next neuron Presynaptic membrane membrane on the transmitteroutput side of a synapse Forms the axon terminal
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