Chapter 4 Summary.docx

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26 Apr 2012
Chapter 4 Summary
o A utilitarian model suggest that people engage in criminal behaviour because crime
pays, and to reduce crime, its costs must be increased.
o Adrews and Bonta (2006) and others (McQuire) question if such (utilitarian model) exists
and refined it.
o They assert that criminality can be decreased when the rewards for crime are reduced
and the costs for crime are increased while the rewards for prosocial behaviour are
increased and the costs for prosocial behaviour are decreased.
(A) Reduce
(B) Add
(C) Add
(D) Reduce
Section 718 CCC- are to ensure respect for the law and the maintenance of a just, peaceful,
and safe society.
o To denounce unlawful conduct
o To remove offenders from society
o To assist in rehabilitation of offenders
o To provide reparation to victims
o To promote a sense of responsibility in offenders
Ideologies (public perceptions):
Punishment extreme ―hard‖ : 1) Those who commit crimes are bad
2) Criminals are unlikely to change unless compelled to
3) Criminals need to be dealt with more strictly (to get their
4) The cost and consequence need to be as serious as
Rehabilitation extreme ‖soft‖ : 1) Criminals are no different than others
2) They can reform themselves and have decent lives
3) Grown up negatively and need to be offered better
Sentencing and Sanctions
o Retribution ―eye for an eye‖ society has the right to harm criminals
o Incapacitation- removing offenders ability to commit crime
o Deterrence application of punishment to influence behaviour
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Deterrence is measured across four dimensions :
1 )certainty (likelihood of legal punishment)
2) celerity (the amount of time between offence and sanction)
3) severity (magnitude of punishment)
4) scope (relationship b/w crime in statute and punishment)
STUDY: (Kershaw 1999; Lloyd, Mair, and Hough 1994)- compares reconviction data by type of
FINDINGS: General deterrence does not reduce crime in that longer sentences and
incarcerations are not highly related to recidivism. Also, no difference in
prison vs no prison offenders. Therefore, getting tougher on crime may
not diminish the rates of these crimes.
Capital Punishment is not influenced by punishment and deterrence
o Overall crime rate has decreased (1981 2007)
o Incarceration rate has decreased (over the last two decades)
o Canada‘s situation better than other countries (U.S., England and Wales)
1) Identifying and taking steps to repair harm
2) Involving all stakeholders
3) Transforming the traditional relationship b/w communities and their government in
response to crime
Programs involve the voluntary participation of the victim of the crime, the offender, and,
ideally, members of the community in discussion (which can cause a selection bias when
determining if RJ works or not)
1) Encounter: meet and discuss
2) Amend: offenders repair harm
3) Reintegration: return everyone to pre-crime state
4) Inclusion: provide opportunities for parties to participate in resolution
1) Victim offender mediation: conference
2) Victim Assistance: courts, correctional agencies, and parole boards offer services
3) Ex-offender assistance: re-integration
4) Restitution: compensation direct or indirect ; tangible or intangible
5) Community service : alternative to incarceration
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o It is cost effective
o Offenders who participated in RJ committed fewer offences compared to a control
o Programs generally targeted young males
o May be an effective alternative to incarceration
o May complement rehabilitation programs
o May further reduce reoffending
o Don Andrews (1990) “What Works” model (first evidence of direct intervention with
offenders with the aim of reducing their future reoffending)
o Three decades ago for offenders was done by psychologist and was related to
attenuating psychological symptoms (eg. Anxiety, depression) (making a happy criminal
not a prosocial one)
o Nowadays psychologists mostly do risk assessments
o Now increasingly popular to use para-professionals they address criminogenic needs
o Which cause variability regarding staff skills, program intensity and degree of oversight-
which all influence the effectiveness of correctional programming
o Self-help groups less popular
o Skill-based programs more popular (variety of treatment targets, and populations
The current correctional programming is to target and reduce criminogenic needs using a
cognitive-behavioural model that assists offenders to understand high-risk situations and increase
the skills to become prosocial.
o All Canadian correctional agencies complete some form of risk assessment when an
individual is admitted following sentencing
o Correctional treatment plan road map for the offender for the duration of his or her
sentence (a.k.a offender classification)
o Offender classification
Step 1 : intake assessment completed by correctional staff- standardized set of
Step 2) Orientation of the rules and regulations some use a handbook
Step 3) Usually seen by a health professional
Step 4) All offenders are screened for risk of suicide
Typical suicide screening involves:
o May be suicidal/has suicidal thoughts
o Has plan for suicide
o Has previous suicide attempt(s) in the past 5 years
o Has had recent psychiatric/psychologist intervention/hospitalization
o Recent loss of relationship, death of a close relative or friend
o Excessively worried about problems
o Influence of alcohol or drugs, signs of withdrawal
o Shows signs of depression/hopelessness
Canadian correction agencies are world leaders in the area of offender classification
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