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Chapter 10

PSYC 321 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Unconditional Positive Regard, Introjection, The Need


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 321
Professor
Joseph Beltempo
Chapter
10

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CHAPTER 10 - Self Actualization & Self Determination
Humans are continually evolving and changing. Humanistic Psychology argues that
everyone has the potential for growth in any direction: no one is inherently bad or unworthy.
Self-Actualization:
Actualization is the tendency to develop capabilities in ways that maintain or enhance the
organism.
Killing harmful cells, growing stronger...
Self-Actualization is what enriches our life experiences and enhances creativity. it promotes
congruence.
The Need For Positive Regard and Contingent Self-Worth
Positive regard is the need humans have for acceptance, love, and the affection of others.
Unconditional positive regard: no-strings-attached love
Conditional positive regard: the most common type of affection people get in their
daily activities.
Conditions of worth are the conditions under which people are judged worthy of positive
regard. We tend to turn these conditions toward ourselves, and we do not like ourselves
unless we meet those criteria. This is called conditional self regard (=contingent
self-worth
).
This can have a negative effect on self-actualization: by choosing behaviours and goals in a
pre-set way, we prevent ourselves from going 'off script'.
Contingencies can be motivating, however failures are more upsetting if they are in the
domain of one's contingencies. Furthermore, it keeps people focused on particular attributes
instead of allowing themselves to grow.
Self-Determination
3 Needs to live a life of well-being:
Autonomy
Competence
Relatedness
Who do we act?
Self-Determination: Done from intrinsic interest or value.
Longer interest in the behaviour.
Control: Done for payment or gain
Doing something to not feel guilty is also considered control.
Extrinsic motivation does not last long. It implies you act for the reward, then
the controlling aspect stands out and motivation falls off.
Introjection and Identification are different degrees of these reasons for acting.
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