Lecture 2 - Chapter 1.docx

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Health and Human Performance
HAHP 2000
Matthew Numer

Chapter I – Foundations of Life Span Development January 11, 2011 FOUNDATIONS OF LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT: 1. Developmental Processes & Periods 2. Developmental Issues 3. Research Methods & Challenges DEVELOPMENTAL PROCESSES & PERIODS: • Combination of biological, cognitive & socio­emotional processes • Important to take a critical eye towards statistics Biological, cognitive & socio­emotional responses are inextricably intertwined. They influence each other,  becoming more and more interwoven as individuals develop Biological Processes • Changes in an individual’s physical nature o Genes inherited, brain development, height/weight gain,  etc. all reflect biological development Cognitive Processes • Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence & language o We think differently than we did 5, 10, 15 years ago Socio­Emotional Processes • Changes in the individual’s relationship with other people, emotions  & personality • As we age, we learn to regulate our emotions o When younger, if we’re upset we cry o Now, we might act passive aggressively towards something Regulating emotions is a learned behavior. Age Classification System: • Concept of developmental period refers to a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain  features o Approximated by certain age ranges Aging is the process, occurring within the passage of time that leads to loss of adaptability or full function and  eventually to death Prenatal Period Conception  ▯Birth Infancy Birth  ▯18 – 24 months Early Childhood 2 – 5  Middle & Late Childhood 6 – 11  Adolescence 10 – 12  ▯18 – 21  Early Adulthood 20 – 30  Middle Adulthood 35 – 45  ▯60 1 Chapter I – Foundations of Life Span Development January 11, 2011 Late Adulthood 60 – 70  ▯Death Elderly 75+ Prenatal Period • Involves tremendous growth in a 9­month period o Single cell  ▯Baby Infancy • Time of extreme dependence on adults • Beginning of many psychological activities o Language, symbolic thought, sensorimotor coordination, social learning,  etc. Early Childhood • Children become more self­sufficient & learn to care for themselves • Develop school schools & spend many hours playing with peers (pre­school  years) Middle & Late  • Develop skills of reading, writing, arithmetic (elementary school) Childhood • Child exposed to larger world & its culture • Achievement becomes a more central theme as self­control increases Adolescence • Rapid physical changes (height/weight gain, changes in body contours,  secondary sex characteristics) • Thought becomes more logical, abstract and idealistic • More time spent outside of the family Early Adulthood • Time of establishing personal & economic independence, career development,  mate selection • Starting a family, rearing children Middle Adulthood • Expand personal & social involvement & responsibility • Assist next generation in competency • Career satisfaction Late Adulthood • Longest span of any period of development • Adjustment to  decreasing strength & health • Retirement, life review, adjustment to new social roles Conceptions of Age: 2 Chapter I – Foundations of Life Span Development January 11, 2011 Chronological • Number of years lapsed since birth o A person’s chronological age doesn’t cause an individual’s development • Time a crude measure of age Biological • Individual’s age in terms of biological health • Involves knowing functional capacities of a person’s vital capacities Mental • Individual’s ability to solve problems on a standardized instrument compared with  others of the same chronological age • Used to understand a child’s IQ Psychological • Individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same  chronological age Social • Social roles & expectations related to a person’s age DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES: • The most important developmental issues concern nature/nurture, continuity/discontinuity and  stability/change Nature & Nurture: • Debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture • Is development primarily influenced by either
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