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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Physical and cognitive development in infancy

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYO 2090
Professor
Dr.Junus

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Cognitive development (chapter 5) Piaget’s sensorimotor stage Scheme: a cognitive structure that helps individuals organize and understand their experiences Schemes change over time and involve 2 processes Assimilation: Incorporating new information into existing knowledge Accommodation: Changing the existing knowledge to fit the new information Organization: Concept of grouping isolated behaviours and thoughts into a higher-order system A boy who only has a vague idea about how to use a hammer may also have a vague idea about how to use other tools. After learning how to use each one, he relates these uses, organizing his knowledge Equilibrium: A mechanism to explain how children shift from one stage of thought to the next Divided sensorimotor stage into 6 substages ONE: Simple reflexes: (birth- 1 month) - sensation and action are coordinated primarily through reflexive behaviour Soon develops behaviours that resemble reflexes in the absence of the usual stimulus for the reflex TWO: First habits and primary circular reactions: (1-4 months) - the infant coordinates sensation and 2 types of schemes: habits and primary circular reactions Habit: scheme based on a reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus Circular reaction: repetitive action Primary circular reaction: scheme based on the attempt to reproduce an event that initially occurred by chance THREE: Secondary circular reactions: (4-8 months) - the infant becomes more object-oriented, moving beyond preoccupation with the self Schemes not goal-oriented, but they are repeated because of their consequences FOUR: Coordination of secondary circular reactions: (8-12 months) - actions become more outwardly-directed, and infants coordinate schemes and act with intentionality Coordinate vision vision and touch Manipulate a stick to bring a desired toy into reach FIVE: Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity: (12-18 months) - infants become intrigued by the many properties of objects and by the many things that they can make happen to objects Purposely explores new possibilities with objects SIX: Internalization of schemes: (18-24 months) - the infant develops the ability to use primitive symbols Symbol: internalized sensory image or word that represents an event Object permanence Understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touches Causality Infant’s knowledge of cause and effect Information processing Conditioning If an infant’s behaviour is followed by a rewarding stimulus, the behaviour is likely to recur Study: baby was placed in crib and a ribbon was tied to it’s ankle and a mobile hanging above. The baby kicked to make the mobile move. A week later the baby returned but a ribbon was not tied to his ankle — but he still kicked (was conditioned) Attention Attention: The focusing of mental resources on select information by 4 months infants can selectively attend to an object Attention in the first year of life is dominated by an orienting/investigative progress\ Direct attention to potentially important locations in the environment (where) and recognizing objects and their features such as color and form (what) 3-9 months can deploy their attention more flexibly and quickly Sustained attention/focused attention: allows infants to learn about and remember characteristics of a stimulus as it becomes familiar Habituation and dishabituation Habituation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Dishabituation: the increase in responsiveness after a change in stimulation Imitation and memory Can imitate facial expressions the first few days after birth Deferred imitation: imitation that occurs after a time delay of hours or days Concept formation and categorization Categories: they group objects, events and characteristics on the basis of common properties Concepts: members of category Concepts and categories help people to simplify and summarize information Ex. Birds are animals, planes are vehicles Infant intelligence Arnold Gesell Developed a clinical tool to help distinguish potentially normal babies from abnormal ones 4 categories of behaviour: motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social The developmental quotient (DQ): an overall developmental score that combines subscores in motor, language, adaptive and personal-social domains in the Gesell assessment of infants The Baylay scales of infant development: scales developed by Nancy Baylay and widely used in the assessment of infant development. The current version (Baylay III) has 5 scales: Cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, and adaptive By 6 months of age - should be able to vocalize pleasure and displeasure, persistently search for objects that are in immediate reach and approach a mirror that is placed in front of them By 12 months - should be able to inhibit behaviour when commanded to do so, imitate words and respond to simple requests (“take a drink”) The Fagan test of infant intelligence: focuses on the infant’s ability to process information, including encoding the attributes of objects, detecting similarities and differences between objects, forming mental representations and retrieving these representations Test babies intelligence by comparing the amount of time they look at a new object with the amount of time they spend looking at a familiar object Maturation: Biological unfolding (Gesell) Prone, lift head (0-1 month) Prone, chest up, use of arms for support (2-4 months) Roll over (2-4.5 months) Support some weight on legs (3-5.5 months) Sit without support (6 months) Information processing perspective Emphasizes importance of cognitive process LOOK ON BLS attention --> habituation and dishabituation Memory: retention of information over time Explicit: Conscious memory Implicit: Memory without conscious recollection Imitation of facial expressions - after the first few days of life Deferred imitation occurs at about 9 months Infantile amnesia Thinking: Conceptual abilities occurs earlier than Piaget's prediction Learning and memory: If rewarding stimulus follow infant's behaviour, behaviour likely to recur Gesell (1934) developed the developmental quotient (DQ) Motor: adaptive behaviour Language: Personal-social behaviour DQ does not correlate highly with IQ scores Bayley Scales of infant development Mental scale Motor scale Infant behaviour IQ scores for infant are not good predictors of childhood intelligence Language development (chapter 5) Language: a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed, that is based on a system of symbols Infinite generativity: the ability to produce a seemingly endless number go meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules Language development Language: A system of symbols used to communicate System rules Phonology: Language sound system (phonemes) Morphology: Combining morphemes (smallest meaningful unit of language) Syntax: Combining words to form acceptable phrases/sentences Semantics: Meaning of words and sentences Pragmatics: Use of appropriate conversation and knowledge underlying the use of language Language acquisition Babbling and other vocalizations Crying: (birth) - different types of crying mean different things Cooing: (1-2 months) - these are oo sounds such as coo or goo that usually occur during interaction with a caregiver Babbling: (middle of 1st year) - string of consonant - vowel combinations Gestures: (8-12 months) - showing, pointing Recognizing language sounds From birth to 6 months of age, infants are “universe linguistics”: they recognize when sounds change most of the time, no matter what language the syllables come from Infants appear to prefer certain categories of words to others Like lexical words such as nouns and verbs (chair, hide) more than grammatical words (the, you) First words As early as 5 months of age, infants recognize their name when someone says it Understand about 50 words at 13 months but can’t say this many words until ~18 months In infancy receptive vocabulary (words they understand) exceeds spoken vocabulary Vocabulary spurt: rapid increase of vocabulary that begins at 18 months (50 words) Overextention: tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word’s meaning (saying dada to any male they see) Underextention: tendency to apply a word too narrowly; when children fail to use a word to name a relevant event or object Ex. Says ‘boy’ to describe a 5 year old neighbour but doesn’t apply the word to a male infant to to a 9 year old male Two-word utterances Can utter two-word statements between 18-24 months Telegraphic speech: the use of short and precise words to communicate Holophrase: Single word used to imply a complete sentence (first words) 18-24 months infants speak in two-word utterances Video Newborns and a little after are able to distinguish all the different sounds in every language (i.e. Chinese she and chi - to us they both sound the same but the baby is able to pick up on the shift in sounds) - they are 'citizens of the world' By 11 months babies are "citizens of a single country" only able to recognize 1 language 13 month old babies listen and understand with both cerebral hemisphere but at 20 months the language centre of the brain has begun to shift to the left hemisphere Brain begins to specialize in the language they know the best - experience with language is what begins this specialization Experience is a major player in driving the major differentiation of the brain Biological foundations of language Children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time developmentally and in about the same order Broca’s area: an area in the brain’s left frontal lobe involved in producing words Damage = difficulty producing words correctly Wernicke’s area: a region of the brain’s left hemisphere involved in language comprehension Damage = poor comprehension and often produce fluent but incomprehensible speech Language acquisition device (LAD): a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain language categories, such as phonology, syntax and semantics Measure of language maturity Brown - mean length of utterance (MLU) Biological influence Children all over the world acquire language milestones in the same time and order Brain's role in language: Aphasia: Loss of ability to use words Broca's area: Speech production Wernicke's area: Language comprehension Chomsky: humans are biological prewired to learn language Language acquisition device (LAD) Behavioural view: language is learned through reinforcement and imitation Parents can facilitate children's language Child-directed speech: spoken in higher pitch Recasting: rephrasing statements Expanding: restating/explaining Labeling: identifying names of objects Behavioural and environmental influences Child-directed speech: this type of speech has a higher-than-normal pitch and involves the use of simple words and sentences Motor development (chapter 5) Dynamic systems theory Dynamic systems theor
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