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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 (socio-emotional development in infancy)

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Dalhousie University
PSYO 2090

Emotional development (chapter 6) Defining emotion emotion: feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being Biological and environmental influences Emotions are the first language with which parents and infants communicate Early emotions Primary emotions: emotions that are present in humans and other animals and emerge early in life; examples are joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust First 6 months Self-conscious emotions: emotions that require self-awareness, especially consciousness and a sense of “me”; examples include jealousy, empathy an embarrassment Second half of the 1st year through the 2nd year Requires cognition Emotion expression and social relationships Crying First cry = lungs have filled with air 3 types of cries Basic cry: a rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a briefer silence, a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry, and then a brief rest before the next cry Hunger Anger cry: a cry similar to the basic cry, with more excess air forced through the vocal chords Pain cry: a sudden appearance of loud crying without preliminary moaning and a long initial cry followed by an extended period of breath holding Parents should soothe a crying infant Develop a sense of trust and secure Smiling 2 types Reflexive smile: a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during irregular patterns of sleep Social smile: a smile in response to an external stimulus, which, early in development, typically is a face Fear 6 months - peaks at 18 months Infant fear is linked to guilt, empathy, and low aggression at 6-7 years Stranger anxiety: an infant’s fear and wariness of strangers; it tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life Second half of 1st year Show less stranger anxiety when in a familiar place Less fearful of child strangers than adult strangers Separation protest: an infant’s crying when the caregiver leaves 7-8 months Emotion regulation and coping Emotion regulation: effectively managing arousal to adapt to and reach a goal Contexts can influence emotional regulation Infants are often affected by such factors as fatigue, hunger, time of day, and the people around them Social contexts (chapter 6) The family Reciprocal socialization reciprocal socialization: socialization that is bi- directional; children socialize parents, just as parent socialize children Scaffolding: parents time interactions in such a way that the infant experiences turn-taking with the parents Reciprocal relationship (socialization) between parent and infant Some adults have trouble responding to infants Parents who were: Unloved Neglected Abused Depressed Attachment produces internal working models of what human relationships should be like Quality of early attachment has influence on later development Childcare Adult caregivers Have formal training in child development and curriculum planning Show consistent expectations of children’s behaviours Receive training in cultural diversity Organization Encourages staff in dexision-making process Offers decent salaries to reduce likelihood of staff turnover Receive a high staff-child ratio and small group size Program Has daily routines for children Promotes positive child-adult and child-child interactions Gives children ample opportunity to talk with adults Age of children Adult-child ratio Maximum group size 0-1 year 1:3 6 1-2 years 1:4 8 2-3 years 1:6 12 3-4 years 1:7 14 4-5 years 1:9 18 5-6 years 1:9 18 Social orientation/understanding and attachment (chapter 6) Social orientation/understanding Social orientation Young infants stare intently at faces and are attuned to the sounds of human voices Face-to-face play: often begins to characterize caregiver-infant interaction when the infant is about 2-3 months Vocalization, touch and gestures Locomotion These newly developed self-produced locomotor skills (crawl, walk, run) allow the infant to independently initiate social interchanges on a more frequent basis Intention, goal-directed behaviour, and cooperation Initially occurs toward the end of the 1st year Joint attention and gaze following help the infant to understand that other people have intentions Social referencing Social referencing: involves “reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a particular situation Helps infants to interpret ambiguous situations more accurately, as when they encounter a stranger and need to know whether to fear the person Attachment and its development Attachment: a close emotional bond between 2 people Monkeys and surrogate mothers Erikson thought that the trust vs. mistrust stage in the first year of infancy is the key time frame for the development of attachment Bowlby’s conceptualization of attachment Phase 1: (birth-2 months) - infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. Strangers, siblings, and parents are equally likely to elicit smiling or crying from the infant Phase 2: (2-7 months) - attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish familiar people from unfamiliar ones Phase 3: (7-24 months) - specific attachments develop. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers Phase 4: (24 months on) - a goal-directed partnership is formed in which children become aware of others’ feelings, goals, and plans and behind to take these into account in forming their own actions Harlow's research with infant monkeys Wire mother (fed 50% of monkeys) Cloth mother (fed 50% of monkeys) Attachment - to cloth mother regardless of who fed the infant monkeys Contact comfort: Pleasurable tactile sensation more powerful for attachment then reduction of hunger (feeding) Individual differences in attachme
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