PSYC 1115 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7-8: Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Observational Learning

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30 Jul 2016
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Psyc Chapter 7-8 Page:281-351 (70)
Learning the process of acquiring through experience new information or
behaviors.
Associative Learning learning that certain events occur together.
The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning)
or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
Stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response.
Respondent Behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
Operant Behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing
consequences.
Cognitive learning: the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events,
by watching others, or through language.
Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more
stimuli and anticipate events.
Behaviorism: the view that psychology
(1) should be an objective science that
(2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes.
Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with
(2).
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Neutral stimulus (NS):
in classical conditioning,
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response
before conditioning.
Pavlov’s classic experiment Pavlov presented a neutral stimulus (a tone) just before an
unconditioned stimulus (food in mouth). The neutral stimulus then became a conditioned stimulus,
producing a conditioned response.
Conditioned
response (CR):
in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned)
stimulus (CS).
Conditioned
stimulus (CS):
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an
unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR)
Acquisition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an
unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned
response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Remember:
NS = Neutral Stimulus
US = Unconditioned Stimulus
UR = Unconditioned Response
CS = Conditioned Stimulus
CR = Conditioned Response
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An unexpected CS Psychologist Michael Tirrell (1990) recalled: “My first girlfriend loved onions, so I
came to associate onion breath with kissing. Before long, onion breath sent tingles up and down my
spine. Oh what a feeling!” ->realistic turn on = Sexy dress (NS) + Kissing = Sexual Arousal (UR)
Higher-order conditioning:
(Also called second-order conditioning.)
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus
in one conditioning experience is paired with a
new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often
weaker) conditioned stimulus.
For example, an animal that has learned that a
tone predicts food might then learn that a light
predicts the tone and begin responding to the
light alone.
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery:
Extinction:
(occurs in operant conditioning)
the diminishing of a conditioned response;
occurs in classical conditioning when an
unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow
a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in
operant conditioning when a response is no
longer reinforced
Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance, after a pause, of an
extinguished conditioned response.
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