PSYC 1115 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4-6: Twin, Autism Spectrum, Tea Bag

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30 Jul 2016
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Chapter 4 Nature/ nurture:
Behavior genetics: the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and
environmental influences on behavior.
Environment: every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the
people and things around us.
Genes:
The plans for your own book of life run to 46 chapters—23 donated by your mother’s
egg and 23 by your father’s sperm. Each of these 46 chapters, called a chromosome,
is composed of a coiled chain of the molecule DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid). Genes,
small segments of the giant DNA molecules, form the words of those chapters. All told,
you have 20,000 to 25,000 genes, which are either active (expressed) or inactive.
Environmental events “turn on” genes, rather like hot water enabling a tea bag to
express its flavor. When turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein
molecules, our body’s building blocks.
Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that
contain the genes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a complex molecule containing the genetic
information that makes up the chromosomes
Genes: the biochemical units of heredity that make up the
chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of
synthesizing proteins.
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Twins/ Adoption Studies:
Identical twins (monozygotic twins): develop from a single fertilized egg that
splits in two, creating two genetically
identical organisms
Genome: the complete instructions for making an
organism, consisting of all the genetic
material in that organism’s chromosomes
Fraternal twins (dizygotic twins): develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are
genetically no closer than ordinary brothers and
sisters, but they share a prenatal environment.
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