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BIOLOGY 1A03 (168)
Xudong Zhu (12)
Chapter 3

Textbook and Class Notes Collaborated - Week 1 - Unit 1 - Chapter 3 Bio 1A03
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1A03
Professor
Xudong Zhu
Semester
Fall

Description
Bio 1A03 Unit One The Molecules of Life Chapter 3 Protein Structure and Function The theory of chemical evolution can be broken into four steps 1 Chemical evolution began with the production of small organic compounds formaldehyde HCO 2hydrogen cyanide HCN from reactants such as H CO CH and NH 22432 HCO HCN and other simple organic compounds reacted to form the midsized molecules called amino 2acids sugars and nitrogenous bases these building block molecules accumulated in the shallow waters of the ancient ocean forming a complex solution called the prebiotic soup 3 Midsized buildingblock molecules linked to form the types of large molecules found in cells today proteins nucleic acids complex carbohydrates which are made up of distinctive chemical subunits that join togetherProteins are composed of amino acidsNucleic Acids are composed of nucleotidesComplex Carbohydrates are composed of sugars 4 Life became possible when one of thee large complex molecules acquired the ability to self replicate began to multiply by means of chemical reactions that it controlledchemical evolution gave way to biological evolution31 What Do Proteins DoFunctions of Proteins o DefenseProteins called antibodies and complement proteins attack and destroy viruses and bacteria that cause disease o MovementMotor proteins and contractile proteins are responsible for moving the cell itself or for moving large molecules and other types of cargo inside the cellEg Actin and Myosin slide past one another as they work to flex or extend muscle cells in your fingers and arms o CatalysisEnzymes are specialized to catalyze chemical reactions most of which would not be able to proceed otherwiseEg Carbonic anhydrase molecules in red blood cells move carbon dioxide from cells back to lungs where it can be breathed outEg Salivary amylase in your mouth helps begin the digestion of starch and other complex carbohydrates into simple sugars o SignalingPeptide hormones bind to receptor proteins on particular cells and in response the activity of the cell with the receptor protein changes in this way proteins are involved in carrying and receiving signals from cell to cell inside the body o StructureStructural proteins give cells mechanical supportEg Create structures such as fingernails and hairEg Membranes of red blood cells have structural proteins that connect to structural proteins inside the cell itselfStructural proteins keep the cells flexible and in their normal shape o TransportProteins are responsible for allowing particular molecules to enter or exit cells and for carrying specific compounds throughout the bodyEg Hemoglobin is a transport protein Protein FunctionProtein Type Role in Cell or Organism Antibodies and Complement Proteins Defense destruction of diseasecausing viruses and bacteriaContractile Proteins and Motor Proteins MovementEnzymes Catalysis catalyze speed up chemical reactionsHormones Signaling act as signals that help coordinate the activities of many cellsReceptor Proteins Signaling receive chemical signals from outside cell and initiate responseStructural Proteins Structure provide support for cells and tissues from structures such ashair feathers cocoons and spider webs Transport Proteins Transport move substances across cell membrane and throughout body
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