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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 – Biology & Tree of Life.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
BIOLOGY 1M03
Professor
Jurek Kolasa
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 – Biology & The Tree of Life The Cell Theory: •  Theory:  an explanation for a very general class of phenomena or observation • Proposed that all organisms are made of cells and that all cells come from   preexisting cells • In 1665, Robert Hooke observed cells in the structure of a cork from an Oak tree,  using a magnifying instrument (30x) • Anton van Leeunwenhock used magnifications up to 300x to observe Paramecium  organisms •  Cel : a highly organized compartment that is bounded by a thin flexible structure  called a plasma membrane and contains concentrated chemicals • Louis Pasteur tested an experiment using a broth exposed to preexisting cells, and  a broth that was not. He concluded that cells arise only from preexisting cells and  not spontaneously from nonliving material. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection: • Darwin and Wallace’s theory stated that species are related by common ancestry  and that characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation  (descent with modification)  •  Evolution:   species are not independent and unchanging, but are related to one  another and can change through time  •  Natural selection:  is a process that explains how evolution occurs o Individuals within
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