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Chapter 11

Chapter 11- From Hominoid to Hominin.docx

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Jon Stone

Chapter 11 From Hominoid to Homininduring Miocene Earths temperature began to fall becauseototal amount of rain declined each yearorainfall became more seasonal so there were several months each year when no rain fellsome animals failed to adapt and became extinctspread of woodland and savanna led to evolution of first hominins about 6 myahominins were different from any of the Miocene apes in two ways1they walk uprightbipedal locomotion led to major morphological changes in bodies2in new savanna and woodland habitats new kinds of food became availablecaused changes in teeth jaws and skulls5 categories distinguish modern humans from contemporary apes1We habitually walk bipedally2Our dentition and jaw musculature are different from those of apes in a number of ways3We have much larger brains in relation to our body size4We develop slowly with long juvenile period5We depend on an elaborate highly variable material and symbolic culture transmitted in part through spoken languagehominins are not included in the same genus Homo as modern humansAt the Beginninglast common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees lived between 7 and 5 myaArdipithecus ramidus Orrorin tugenensis and Sahelanthropus tchadensis have begun to shed light in history of human lineageArdipithecusgenus Ardipithecus include two species A ramidus and A kadabba and both have similarities to both humans and chimpanzeesseveral features suggest that A ramidus was a homininoopening on bottom of skull through which spinal cord passes foramen magnum is located forward under the skull as it is in humansoforward placement of foramen magnum is associated with bipedal locomotionowere smaller more incisorlike canine teeth that are not sharpened by the lower premolar unlike apes which have relatively large caninesoenamel is thinner than in other early hominins and the canines are smaller than in chimpanzees and gorillas but larger than in later homininsoseemed to have lived in a forested environmentbased on fossils of wood and seeds found at siteunclear whether Ardipithecus is related more closely to humans or to chimpanzees1
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